Physical Dependence on Ethanol: Methodological Considerations

  • Gerhard Freund
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 126)


An ethanol-induced biological change may be: 1) cause, 2) effect, 3) unrelated covariate of physical dependence, or 4) an experimental artifact. The first three possible relationships are shown in the Figure and have been discussed in detail elsewhere (Freund, in press, b). In addition to correlation, other criteria were listed to establish the significance of an observation to the pathogenesis of physical dependence. This discussion deals with the fourth possible relationship—the experimental artifact.


Liquid Diet Ethanol Consumption Thiamine Deficiency Physical Dependence Ethanol Administration 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerhard Freund
    • 1
  1. 1.Veterans Administration Hospital and Departments of Medicine and Neuroscience, College of MedicineUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA

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