Aquatic Organism Pathobiology as a Sentinel System to Monitor Environmental Carcinogens

  • R. A. Sonstegard
  • J. F. Leatherland
Part of the Environmental Science Research book series (ESRH, volume 16)


Although the etiology of neoplasia in man, with rare exceptions is unknown, it is estimated that 60–90% of the cancers in man are environmentally induced (Epstein, 1974; Hammond, 1975). That environmental factor(s) are the major determinants in human cancer(s) is based on the uneven geographical distribution of the disease (Draser and Irving, 1973; Armstrong and Doll, 1975) and studies of migrant populations which indicate that the prevailing cancer rate is determined by the place of residence rather than origin (Smith, 1956; Haenszel and Kurihara, 1968; Staszewski and Haenszel, 1965; Haenszel et al., 1973). Most of the known carcinogens are considered to be the product of increasing agricultural and technological sophistication.


Aquatic Organism Great Lake Coho Salmon Environmental Carcinogen York Acad 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. A. Sonstegard
    • 1
  • J. F. Leatherland
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BiologyMcMaster Univ.HamiltonCanada
  2. 2.Department of ZoologyUniv. of GuelphGuelphCanada

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