Advertisement

Trihalomethane Levels in Canadian Drinking Water

  • David T. Williams
  • Rein Otson
  • Peter D. Bothwell
  • Keith L. Murphy
  • John L. Robertson
Part of the Environmental Science Research book series (ESRH, volume 16)

Abstract

The presence of the trihalomethanes chloroform, bromodichloro-methane, chlorodibromomethane and bromoform in drinking water which had been treated with chlorine was reported by workers in Holland (Rook, 1974) and the United States (Bellar et al, 1974). It was postulated that the chloroform was formed by the reaction of the chlorine, via the haloform reaction, with the natural organics present in the raw water supply (Rook, 1974; Bellar et al, 1974). The brominated trihalomethanes were thought to be produced by the reaction of chlorine with bromide ion present in the raw water (Rook, 1974; Bunn et al, 1975). Bunn and co-workers (1975) have shown, under laboratory conditions, that this is true with both bromide and iodide ions and have obtained all ten trihalomethanes containing chlorine, bromine and iodine atoms. However, most methods of analysis have been optimised to detect only the four trihalomethanes containing chlorine and bromine atoms. The classical haloform reaction occurs with compounds containing the methyl ketone structure (-CO.CH3) but Rook (1974) demonstrated that compounds containing 1,3-dione or resorcinol type structures also underwent the haloform reaction.

Keywords

United States Environmental Protection Agency Water Treatment Plant Iodine Atom Chlorine Demand Provincial Survey 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bellar, T.A., and J.J. Lichtenberg, 1974. Determining volatile organics at microgram-per-litre levels by gas chromatography. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 66: 739–44.Google Scholar
  2. Bellar, T.A., J.J. Lichtenberg, and R.C. Kroner, 1974. The occurrence of organohalides in chlorinated drinking water. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 66: 703–6.Google Scholar
  3. Bunn, W.W., B.B. Haas, E.R. Deane, and R.C. Kleopfer, 1975. Formation of trihalornethanes by chlorination of surface water. Env. Letters 10: 205–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Health and Welfare Canada. National survey for halomethanes in drinking water. Environmental Health Directorate report (77-EHD-9), Ottawa, Ont. (1977).Google Scholar
  5. Nicholson, A.A., O. Meresz, and B. Lemyk, 1977. Determination of free and total potential haloforms in drinking water. Anal Chem. 49: 814–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Rook, J.J., 1974. Formation of haloforms during chlorination of natural waters. Water Treat. Exam. 23: 234–43.Google Scholar
  7. Smillie, R.D., A.A. Nicholson, O. Meresz, W.K. Duholke, G.A.V. Rees, K. Roberts, and C. Fung. Organics in Ontario drinking waters. Part II. A survey of selected water treatment plants. Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Rexdale, Ont. (April 1977).Google Scholar
  8. Smillie, R.D. 1977. Chloroform levels in Ontario drinking water. Water Poll. Contr. 115: 8–9.Google Scholar
  9. Symons, J.M., T.A. Bellar, J.K. Carswell, J. DeMarco, K.L. Kropp, G.G. Robeck, D.R. Seeger, C.J. Slocum, B.L. Smith, and A.A. Stevens, 1975. National organics reconnaissance survey for halogenated organics. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 67: 634–47.Google Scholar
  10. United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Toxic Substances. Preliminary assessment of suspected carcinogens in drinking water — Report to Congress. Washington, D.C. (December 1975).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • David T. Williams
    • 1
  • Rein Otson
    • 1
  • Peter D. Bothwell
    • 1
  • Keith L. Murphy
    • 2
  • John L. Robertson
    • 2
  1. 1.Environmental Health DirectorateHealth and Welfare CanadaOttawaCanada
  2. 2.IEC International Environmental Consultants LimitedIslingtonCanada

Personalised recommendations