Chloro-Organic Compounds in the Lower Fox River, Wisconsin
The Lower Fox River, Wisconsin is one of the most densely developed industrial river basins in the world. During 1976–77 about 250 samples were analyzed by GC and GC/MS including biota, sediments, river water and wastewaters from 15 pulp and/or paper mills and 12 sewage treatment plants. A total of 105 compounds were identified in selected extracts by GC/MS with another 20 compounds characterized but not conclusively identified. Twenty of the 105 compounds are on the EPA Priority Pollutant List. Other compounds identified in pulp and paper mill wastewaters, including chloro-guaiacols, chlorophenols, resin acids and chloro-resin acids have been reported toxic to fish by other investigators. Several compounds apparently not previously reported in wastewaters are chloro-syringaldehyde, chloroindole, trichlorodimethoxyphenol, and various 1–4 chlorinated isomers of bisphenol A. Concentrations of the various compounds, when present in final effluents, ranged from 0.5 to ca. 100 μg/L. An exception was dehydroabietic acid, a toxic resin acid not found on the EPA Priority Pollutant List. It was frequently found in pulp and paper mill effluents in concentrations ranging from 100 to 8500 μg/L. PCBs were found in all of the matrices sampled. Sixteen of the 35 fish exceeded the FDA limit of 5 mg/kg while 31 of the 35 exceeded the Canadian limit of 2 mg/kg. Concentrations of PCBs and other chloro-organics were related to point source discharges. There was a direct correlation of the concentrations of these compounds in wastewater with suspended solids values.
KeywordsDimethyl Ether Paper Mill Resin Acid Dehydroabietic Acid Municipal Sewage Treatment Plant
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