While it is evident that conditioning is involved in the development of drug addictions, the specific etiological role (or roles) of conditioning has not yet been clearly delineated. Some believe that addiction is maintained via addicts learning to avoid withdrawal stress through self-administration (Beach, 1957), while others have suggested that the reinforcing effects of drugs are sufficient to maintain operantly conditioned self-administration (Schuster & Villarreal, 1968). Wikler (1971) has further pointed out that environmental situations that regularly surround drug administration or withdrawal stress may also gain conditioned positive or negative reinforcement qualities, respectively.
KeywordsHome Cage Depressant Effect Ethanol Tolerance Morphine Tolerance Behavioral Tolerance
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