A Comparison of Two Quickly Administered Evaluative Instruments Used to Predict a Predisposition to Anxiety in Alcoholic Males

  • Stephen G. Shafer


The problem of anxiety as a human emotion can be traced back into history to at least the time of ancient Egypt where the attribute of fear is recorded (Cohen 1969). As early as the eleventh century, a major work entitled, A Philosophy of Character and Conduct by the Arab philosopher Ala ibn Hazm, purported that anxiety was basic to the human condition. (“ . . . no one is moved to act or moved to speak a single word who does not hope by means of this action or word to release anxiety from his spirit” (Kirtzeck 1955).


Trait Anxiety State Anxiety Anxiety Scale Color Patch Color Test 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen G. Shafer
    • 1
  1. 1.Community Mental Health CenterSpokaneUSA

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