Advertisement

Phase III LAAM Study: An Interim Report

  • Miriam Burns
  • Mary Carol Newmann
  • Gail L. Levine
  • Jack D. Blaine

Abstract

Levo-alpha-acetylmethadol (LAAM) is a derivative of methadone not inappropriately referred to by patients as “long-acting methadone.” While LAAM was originally developed during World War II as an analgesic, it was found to be inappropriate for that purpose due to the slow-acting onset of its psychoactivity. Further testing of the drug was delayed until the early 1950’s when Isbell and Fraser (Fraser and Isbell, 1952; Fraser, Nash, Vanhorn, and Isbell, 1954) demonstrated the drug’s opiate-like profile. LAAM was found by them to be equally as efficacious as methadone in preventing the occurrence of withdrawal symptoms in morphine dependent subjects. Furthermore, since LAAM has an extremely long duration of action which can persist over 72 hours after a single oral dose it can be clearly advantageous for use in drug-dependent individuals.

Keywords

Methadone Maintenance Interim Report Methadone Maintenance Therapy Heroin Addict Heroin Dependence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams, R.G., Bloom, W.A., Capel, W.C., and Stewart, G.T. 1971. Heroin addicts on methadone replacement: A study of dropouts. Int. J. Addict. 6 (2): 269–277.Google Scholar
  2. Blaine, J. 1978. Early clinical studies of levo-alpha-acetylmethadol (LAAM): An opiate agonist for use in the medical treatment of chronic heroin dependence. In The International Challenge of Drug Abuse. R.C. Peterson (ed.) NIDA Research Monograph(Ser). (19), Winter.Google Scholar
  3. Blaine, J.D. and Renault, P.F. 1976. Introduction. Rx: 3x/week LAAM: Alternative to methadone. NIDA Research Monograph Ser. (8): 1–9, July.Google Scholar
  4. Senay, E.C., Renault, P.F., Dimenza, S., Collier, W.E., Daniels, S.J., and Dorus, W. 1975. Three times a week LAAM equals seven times a week methadone. A preliminary report of a control study. Problems of Drug Dependence. 543–550.Google Scholar
  5. Fraser, H.F. and Isbell, H. 1952. Actions and addiction liabilities of alpha-acetylmethadols in man. J. Pharm. Exp. Ther. 105 (4): 458–465.Google Scholar
  6. Fraser, H.F., Nash, T.L., Vanhorn, G.D., and Isbell, H. 1954. Use of miotic effect in evaluating analgesic drugs in man. Arch. In-ternationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie. 98: 443–451.Google Scholar
  7. Goldstein, A. and Judson, B. 1974. Three critical issues in the management of methadone programs: critical issue 3: Can the community be protected against the hazards of take-home methadone. Addiction. Peter G. Bourne (ed.). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  8. Irwin, S., Kinochi, R., Cooler, P., and Bottomly, D. 1973. Acute time-dose-response effects of cylazocine, methadone, and methadyl in man. (Unpublished). Prepared under NIMH Contract ND-72–115 at the University of Oregon Medical School, Portland, Oregon.Google Scholar
  9. Irwin, S., Blachly, P., Marks, J., and Carter, C. 1973. Preliminary observations with acute and chronic methadone and LAAM administration in humans. (Unpublished). University of Oregon Medical School, Portland, Oregon.Google Scholar
  10. Jaffe, J.H., Schuster, C.R., Smith, B.B., and Blachly, P.H. 1970. Comparison of acetylmethadol and methadone in the treatment of long-term heroin users: A pilot study. J.A.M.A. 211: 1834–1836.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jaffe, J.H. and Senay, E.C. 1971. Methadone and 1-methadyl acetate. Use in management of narcotic addicts. J.A.M.A. 216: 1303–1305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jaffe, J.H, Senay, E.C., Schuster, C.R., Renault, P.F., Smith, B., and Dimenza, S. 1972. Methadyl acetate vs. methadone. A double-blind study in heroin users. J.A.M.A. 222 (4): 437–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Levine, R., Zaks, A., Fink, M., and Freedman, A.M. 1973. Levometha- dyl acetate. Prolonged duration of opioid effects including cross tolerance to heroin, in man. J.A.M.A. 226 (3); 316–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ling, W., Charuvastra, V.C., Kaim, S.C., and Klett, C.J. 1976. Summary of Veteran’s Administration Phase II Cooperative Study for LAAM and Methadone. In: Rx: 3x/week LAAM: Alternative to Methadone. NIDA Research Monograph Ser. ( 8 ): 94–102.Google Scholar
  15. Trueblood, B., Judson, B.A., and Goldstein, A. 1977. Acceptability of methadyl acetate (LAAM) as compared with methadone in a treatment program for heroin addicts. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. In press.Google Scholar
  16. Savage, C., Karp, E.G., Curran, S.F., Hanlon, T.E., and McCabe, O.L. 1976. Methadone/LAAM maintenance: A comparative study. Comprehensive Psychiatry. 17(3), May/June.Google Scholar
  17. Zaks, A., Fink, M., and Freedman, A.M. 1972. Levo-methadyl in maintenance treatment of opiate dependence. J.A.M.A. 220 (6): 811–813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Miriam Burns
    • 1
  • Mary Carol Newmann
    • 1
  • Gail L. Levine
    • 2
  • Jack D. Blaine
    • 3
  1. 1.John A. Whysner Associates, Inc.New York CityUSA
  2. 2.John A. Whysner Associates, Inc.USA
  3. 3.Division of ResearchNIDARockvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations