Atmospheric Genotoxicants—What Numbers Do We Collect?

  • Eugene Sawicki
Part of the Environmental Science Research book series (ESRH, volume 15)


To advance the estimation of human environmental risk, especially cancer prevention, from the body-count phase to realistic extrapolation, we need to carry out more sophisticated carcinogenic studies with animals and submammalian species mimicking the human condition. We have seemingly unsurmountable difficulties with our perspective in the study of human carcinogenesis because the paucity of our environmental data and the simplicity of our carcinogen models of purebred animals and “pure” chemicals so misleads us as to obscure reality. Before we can begin to understand human chemical carcinogenesis, we need to know the genetic background of the individual, the key genotoxicant(s) to which the individual is heavily exposed, and the families of genotoxicants in the individuals environment. We are exposed to genotoxicants because of our particular life style (e.g., cigarette smoking, drugs, medicines, and cosmetics), and because the chemicals are present in the life-supporting environment (e.g., food, water, and air) we share with other people.


Vinyl Chloride Styrene Oxide Polluted Atmosphere Respirable Particle Ethylene Dibromide 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Acheson ED, Hadfield EH, Macbeth RG: Carcinoma of the nasal cavity and accessory sinuses in woodworkers. Lancet 1:311–312, 1967CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aksoy M, Erdem S, Erdogan G, Dincol G: Combination of genetic factors and chronic exposure to benzene in the etiology of leukemia. Human Hered 26:149–153, 1976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anderson EV: Top 50 chemicals regain output lost in 1975. Chem Eng News 55:37, 1977Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anonymous: More benzene data. Chem Week 17, August 17, 1977Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Anonymous: Hair dyes a hazard? Chem Week 17, Dec 21, 1977Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Anonymous: Increased use of coal deemed safe through 1985. Chem Eng News 56:22, 1978Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Blijleven WGH: Mutagenicity of four hair dyes in Drosophila melanogaster. Mutat Res 48:181–186, 1977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bryan GT: Neoplastic response of various tissues to the systemic administration of the 8-methyl ether of xanthurenic acid. Cancer Res 28:183–185, 1968Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cabrai JRP, Shubik P, Mollner T, Raitano F: Carcinogenic activity of hexachlorobenzene in hamsters. Nature 269: 510–511, 1977ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dobrokhotov VB: The mutagenic action of benzene, toluene and a mixture of these hydrocarbons in a chronic test. Gig i San No. 1:32–34, 1977Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Doll R: Strategy for detection of cancer hazards to man. Nature 265:589–596, 1977ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dybing E, Aune T: Hexachlorobenzene induction of 2,4-diaminoanisole mutagenicity in vitro. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol 40:575–583, 1977Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dybing E, Thorgeirsson SS: Metabolic activation of 2,4-diaminoanisole, a hair dye component: I. Role of cytochrome P-450 metabolism in mutagenicity in vitro. Bio-chem Pharmacol 26:729–734, 1977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dzhioev FK: On carcinogenic activity of 4,4’-diaminodi-phenyl ether. Vopr Onkol 21:69–73, 1975Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Egle Jr JL, Gochberg BJ: Respiratory retention of inhaled toluene and benzene in the dog. J Toxicol Environ Health 1:531–538, 1976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Giacomelli-Maltoni G, Melandri C, Prodi V, Tarroni G: Deposition efficiency of monodisperse particles in human respiratory tract. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 33:603–610, 1972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gibb FR, Morrow PE: Alveolar clearance in dogs after inhalation of an iron-59 oxide aerosol. J Appl Physiol 17:429, 1962Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Green GM, Jakab GJ, Low RB, Davis GS: Defense mechanisms of the respiratory membrane. Am Rev Resp Disease 115: 479–514, 1977Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hueper WC, Conway MD: Chemical carcinogenesis and cancers. Springfield, Charles C Thomas, 1964, p 74Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ito J, Hiasa Y, Yoniski Y, Marugami M: The development of carcinoma in livers of rats treated with m-toluylene-diamine and synergistic and antagonistic effects with other chemicals. Cancer Res 29:1137–1145, 1969Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kissling M, Speck B: Further studies on experimental benzene induced aplastic anemia. Blut 25:97, 1972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Loprieno NA, et al.: Mutagenicity of industrial compounds: styrene and its possible metabolite styrene oxide. Mutat Res 40:317–324, 1976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Maltoni C in Anonymous: Research “bombshell” hits benzene. Chem Week 33, November 2, 1977Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Matolo NM, Klauber MR, Gorishek WM, Dixon JA: High incidence of gastric carcinoma in a coal mining region. Cancer 29:733–737, 1972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nagao M, Yahagi T, Honda M, Scino Y, Matsushima T, Sugimura T: Comutagenic action of norharman and harman. Proc Japan Acad 53B:95–98, 1977Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rathert P, Melchior H, Lutzeyer W: Phenacetin: a carcinogen for the urinary tract? J Urol 113:653–657, 1975Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Russfield AB, Homburger F, Boger E, Van Dongen CG, Weisburger EK, Weisburger JH: The carcinogenic effect of 4,4’-methylene-bis-(2-chloroaniline) in mice and rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 31:47–54, 1975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Russfield AB, Homburger F, Weisburger EK, Weisburger JH: Further studies on carcinogenicity of environmental chemicals including simple aromatic amines. Toxic Appl Pharm 25:446–447, 1973Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Saracci E: Asbestos and lung cancer: An analysis of the epidemiological evidence on the asbestos-smoking interaction. Int J Cancer 20:323–331, 1977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sawicki E: The genotoxic environmental pollutants. In: Proceedings of the First Symposium on Management of Residues from Synthetic Fuels Production (Schmidt-Collerus JJ, Bonomo FS, eds.). Denver, University of Denver, 1976, pp 122–165Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sawicki E: Analysis of atmospheric carcinogens and their cofactors. In: Environmental Pollution and Carcinogenic Risks (Rosenfeld C, Davis V/, eds.). Lyon, IARC Scientific Publications No. 13, 1976, pp 297–354Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sawicki E: Chemical composition and potential genotoxic aspects of polluted atmospheres. In: Air Pollution and Cancer in Man (Mohr U, Schmahl D, Tomatis L, eds.). Lyon, IARC Scientific Publications No. 16, 1977, pp 127–157Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sawicki E: Analysis of atmospheric pollutants of possible importance in human carcinogenesis. Presented at the conference on “Modern Measurement of Environmental Pollutants” at the University of Rochester Medical School, May 23, 1977, in press, 1978Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Smith DH, Achenbach M, Yeager WJ, Anderson PJ, Fitch WL, Rindfleisch TC: Quantitative comparison of combined gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric profiles of complex mixtures. Anal Chem 49:1623–1632, 1977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Steinhoff D, Grundmann E: Zur cancerogenen wiskung von 4,4’-diaminodiphenylmethan und 2,4’-diaminodiphenylmethan. Naturwissenschaften 5:247–248, 1970ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Stula EF, Sherman H, Zapp Jr JA, Clayton Jr JW: Experimental neoplasia in rats from oral administration of 3,3’-dichlorobenzidine, 4,4’-methylene-bis(2-chloro-aniline), and 4,4’-methylene-bis(2-methylaniline). Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 31:159–176, 1975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Tokuhata GK: Cancer of the lung: Host and environmental interaction. In: Cancer Genetics (Lynch HT, ed.). Springfield, Charles C Thomas, 1976, 213–232Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Venitt S, Searle CE: Mutagenicity and possible carcinogenicity of hair colourants and constituents. IARC Scientific Publications No. 13, INSERM 52:263–272, 1976Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Vigliani EC, Fornia A: Benzene and leukemia. Env Res 11:122–127, 1976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wagoner JK, Infante PF, Saracci R, Duck BW, Carter JT: Vinyl chloride and mortality? Lancet ii:194–195, 1976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Zharova EI: Characteristics of blastomogenesis induced with tryptophan metabolites. Patol Fiziol Ekspter 17: 54–58, 1973Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eugene Sawicki
    • 1
  1. 1.Environmental Sciences Research LaboratoryU.S. Environmental Protection AgencyResearch Triangle ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations