The Cellular Toxicity of Complex Environmental Mixtures

  • Michael D. Waters
  • Joellen L. Huisingh
  • Neil E. Garrett
Part of the Environmental Science Research book series (ESRH, volume 15)


The principal aim of environmental toxicology is to define the means whereby an agent exerts its biochemical, physiological, and pathological effects. Such effects can occur at multiple levels of biological organization from individual molecules to intact animals. It appears that toxic responses proceed as a function of dose from the molecular level to the responding tissue or organ. A complete understanding of the toxic response requires investigation at each level of biological organization. However, the primary unit of integrated biological organization and response is the intact cell, and most toxic manifestations depend ultimately upon changes that occur at the cellular level.


Alveolar Macrophage Cellular Toxicity Human Lung Fibroblast Coal Worker Pneumoconiosis Viability Index 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael D. Waters
    • 1
  • Joellen L. Huisingh
    • 1
  • Neil E. Garrett
    • 2
  1. 1.Environmental Toxicology DivisionU.S. Environmental Protection AgencyResearch Triangle ParkUSA
  2. 2.Environmental Sciences GroupNorthrop Services, Inc.Research Triangle ParkUSA

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