Thermal Effects Induced by High Energy Protons in Target and Absorber Materials

  • P. Sievers
Part of the Ettore Majorana International Science Series book series (EMISS, volume 3)


With proton energies and intensities of about 400 GeV/c and several 1013 protons/pulse which are presently reached in high energy proton accelerators at FNAL and CERN, target and absorber materials which otherwise are radiation resistant, can be severely damaged by the elevated energy deposition densities and the resulting temperature rises induced by the incident protons. These are particularly high for proton beams of short duration of about 20 µs and small beam cross sections of about 2 mm diameter, incident on heavy materials, since therein a major amount of the beam energy is deposited via the π0 initiated electron-gamma cascade.

Since no experimental data of the energy deposition density of high energy protons in various materials were available at the time when the CERN-SPS (Super Proton Sychrotron) was under construction, Monte Carlo cascade simulation programmes were used1 in order to evaluate design parameters for targets and absorbers2.4.


Absorber Material Incident Proton High Energy Proton Copper Cylinder Steady State Temperature Distribution 
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  1. 1.
    J. Ranft and J.T. Routti, Monte Carlo Programs for Calculating Nuclear-Meson Cascades in Cylindrical Geometries, Report LAB-II/RA/71-4, CERN (1971); For further references see: H. Schoenbacher, Report LAB-II/RA/TM/74-5, CERN (1974).Google Scholar
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    W. Kalbreier, W.C. Middelkoop and P. Sievers, External Targets at the SPS, Report LAB-II/BT/74-1, CERN (1974).Google Scholar
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    P. Sievers, Measurements of the Energy Deposition of 200 and 400 GeV/c Protons in Aluminum and Copper, Report SPS/ABT/77-1, CERN (1977).Google Scholar
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Sievers
    • 1
  1. 1.SPS DivisionCERNGenevaSwitzerland

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