Advertisement

Bremsstrahlung Spectrum Analysis by Activation Method (LYRA, DIBRE, REFUM)1–6

  • Takashi Nakamura
Part of the Ettore Majorana International Science Series book series (EMISS, volume 3)

Abstract

In the spectrum measurement of bremsstrahlung and photoneutrons generated from the electron accelerator, it is very difficult to detect them with pulse-type detectors, since a large number of gamma-ray bursts are produced. The bremsstrahlung spectra have been measured by using various large, complicated, counter systems for thin and thick targets; nevertheless, in such a high gamma-ray flux field, activation detectors are an effective means of spectrum measurement of gamma-rays and neutrons.

Keywords

Activation Detector Activation Method Neutron Reaction Thick Target Photonuclear Reaction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    T. Nakamura, M. Takemura, H. Hirayama and T. Hyodo, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5189 (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    T. Nakamura and H. Hirayama, J. Atomic Energy Soc. Japan 14, 668 (1972) (in Japanese).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    H. Hirayama and T. Nakamura, Nucl. Sci. Eng. 50, 248 (1973).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    T. Nakamura and H. Hirayama, Nucl. Sci. Eng. 59, 237 (1976).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    H. Hirayama, Doctor Thesis, Kyoto Univ. (September 1976).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    H. Hirayama and T. Nakamura, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 147, 563 (1977).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    T. Matsui and T. Yamada, Japan Atomic Energy Research Establishment Report JAERI-memo 3000 (1968) (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    H.H. van Tuyl, Hanfard Atomic Products Operation (General Electric Co.) Report HW-83784 (1964).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Neutron Cross-Sections, Brookhaven National Laboratory Report BNL-325, 2nd ed., Suppl. No. 2, I (1964); IIA, B (1966); III (1965).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    G. di Cola and A. Rota, Nucl. Sci. Eng. 23, 344 (1965).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. Fischer, Kernforschungsanlage Jül-1196 (1975).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    C.D. Zerby and F.L. Keller, Nucl. Sci. Eng. 27, 190 (1967).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    W.W. Scott, Protection against Space Radiation, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Report NASA-SP 169 (1968), p. 339.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    H. Ferdinande, G. Knuyt, R. Van de Vijver and R. Jacobs, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 91, 135 (1971).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    R.D. Birkhoff, Handbuch der Physik (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1958 ), Vol. 34, pp 53–138.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    B.W. Mar, Nucl. Sci. Eng. 24, 193 (1966).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    P.J. Ebert, A.F. Lauzon and E.M. Lent, Phys. Rev. 183, 422 (1969).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    G. Moliere, Z. Naturforsch. A3, 78 (1948).ADSGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    H.A. Bethe, Phys. Rev. 89, 1256 (1953).MathSciNetADSMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    H. Frank, Z. Naturforsch. A14, 247 (1959).ADSGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    H.W. Koch and J.W. Motz, Rev. Mod. Phys. 31, 920 (1959).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    D.K. Trubey, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Report ORNL-RSIC-IO (1966).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    W.E. Dance, D.H. Rester, B.J. Farmer, J.H. Johnson and L.L. Baggerly, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 2881 (1968).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    C.P. Jupiter, J.A. Lonergan and G. Merkel, Protection against Space Radiation, National Aeronautics and Space Admini-stration Report NASA-SP 169 (1968), p. 249.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    M.J. Berger and S.M. Seltzer, Nat. Bureau of Standards Reports 9836 and 9837 (1968).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    A.A. O’Dell, Jr., C.W. Sandifer, R.B. Knowlen and W.D. George, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 61, 340 (1968).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    C.W. Sandifer and M. Taherzadeh, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-15, 336 (1968).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    M.J. Berger and S.M. Seltzer, Phys. Rev. C2, 621 (1970).ADSGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    R.L. Ford and W.R. Nelson, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center Report SLAC-210 (1978).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    J.K. Dickens, J.F. Emery, T.A. Love, J.W. McConnell, K.J. Northcutt, R.W. Peelle and H. Weaver, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Report 0RNL/NUREG-14 (1977).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    T. Nakamura, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 105, 77 (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    T. Nakamura, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 131, 521 (1975).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    B.L. Berman, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Report UCRL-74622 (1973).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    E.V. Fuller, private communication (1974).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    H. Hirayama and T. Nakamura, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 133, 355 (1976)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    T. Nakamura, T. Nishimoto and H. Hirayama, J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 14, 31 (1977).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    K. Shin, Y. Hayashida and T. Nakamura, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 151, 271 (1978).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    T. Nakamura, H. Hirayama and K. Shin, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 151, 277 (1978).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    F.H. Attix, W.C. Roesch and E. Tochillin, Radiation Dosimetry, 2nd ed., Vol. 3 ( Academic Press, New York, 1969 ).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    H.W. Patterson and R.H. Thomas, Accelerator Health Physics, ( Academic Press, New York, 1973 ).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    W.P. Swanson, Radiological Safety Aspects of the Operation of Electron Linear Accelerators (IAEA, Vienna, 1975 ).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    C.D. Zerby and H.S. Moran, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Report 0RNL-TM-422 (1962).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    R.G. Alsmiller, Jr. and H.S. Moran, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Report ORNL-TM-1502 (1966).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    H. Sugiyama, Researches of the Electrotechnical Laboratory, No. 724 (1972) (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    F. Sauter, Ann. Physik 11, 454 (1931).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    M.J. Berger, Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. 55 (6), 343 (1955).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    P.V.C. Hough, Phys. Rev. 73, 266 (1948).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    W.N. McElroy et al., Air Force Weapons Laboratory Report AFWL-TR 67-41, Vol. I-IV (1967).Google Scholar

Photonuclear Cross-Section Bibliography

  1. [53GO]
    J. Goldemberg and L. Katz, Phys. Rev. 90, 308 (1953).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [53MO]
    R. Montalbetti, L. Katz and J. Goldemberg, Phys. Rev. 91, 659 (1953).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [54GO]
    J. Goldemberg and L. Katz, Canad. J. Phys. 32, 49 (1954).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [57CA]
    J.H. Carver and K.H. Lokan, Austral. J. Phys. 10, 312 (1957).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [57BO]
    O.V. Bogdankevich, L.E. Lazareva and F.A. Nikolaev, Sov. Phys. JETP 4, 320 (1957).Google Scholar
  6. [57KA]
    L. Katz, K.G. McNeill, M. LeBlanc and F. Brown, Canad. J. Phys. 35, 470 (1957).ADSGoogle Scholar
  7. [59PA]
    R.W. Parsons, Canad. J. Phys. 37, 1344 (1959).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [62BO]
    O.V. Bogdankevich, B.I. Goryachev and V.A. Zapevalov, Sov. Phys. JETP 15, 1044 (1962).Google Scholar
  9. [62FU]
    S.C. Fultz, R.L. Bramblett, J.T. Caldwell, N.E. Hansen and C.P. Jupiter, Phys. Rev. 127, 1273 (1962).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [65KR]
    P. Kruger, T.M. Crawford, J. Goldemberg and W.C. Barber, Nucl. Phys. 62, 584 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [66BA]
    E.B. Bazhanov, A.P. Komar, A.V. Kulikov and V.I. Ogurtsov, Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. 3, 522 (1966).Google Scholar
  12. [66FU]
    S.C. Fultz, J.T. Caldwell, B.L. Berman, R.L. Bramblett and R.R. Harvey, Phys. Rev. 143, 790 (1966).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [68MI]
    K. Min and T.A. White, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1200 (1968).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [69BE]
    B.L. Berman, R.L. Bramblett, J.T. Caldwell, H.S. Davis, M.A. Kelly and S.C. Fultz, Phys. Rev. 177, 1745 (1969).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [69FU]
    S.C. Fultz, B.L. Berman, J.T. Caldwell, R.L. Bramblett and M.A. Kelly, Phys. Rev. 186, 1255 (1969).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [70VE]
    A. Veyssière, H. Beil, R. Bergère, P. Carlos and A. Lepretre, Nucl. Phys. A159, 561 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [71IS]
    B.S. Ishkhanov, I.M. Kapitonov, I.M. Piskarev and V.G. Shevchenko, Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. 14, 142 (1972).Google Scholar
  18. [73AL1]
    R.A. Alvarez, B.L. Berman, F.H. Lewis and P. Meyer, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Report UCRL-74461, Proc. Internat. Conf. Photonuclear Reactions and Applications (1973).Google Scholar
  19. [73AL2]
    R.A. Alvarez, B.L. Berman, F.H. Lewis and P. Meyer, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Report UCRL-74469, Proc. Internat. Conf. Photonuclear Reactions and Applications (1973).Google Scholar
  20. [73FU]
    S.C. Fultz, R.A. Alvarez, B.L. Berman and P. Meyer, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Report UCRL-74468, Proc. Internat. Conf. Photonuclear Reactions and Applications (1973).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Takashi Nakamura
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Nuclear StudyUniversity of TokyoTanashi, TokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations