Spatial Dimensions of Human Crowding

An Analysis by the Density Gradients for Ankara, 1965–70
  • Özcan Esmer
Part of the NATO Conference Series book series (NATOCS, volume 10)


Crowding, density and intensity are highly relative in their meaning and lack diagnostic values unless they are applied to their related spatial contexts. This paper proposes that these terms should be considered within the general concepts of population distribution and spatial organization. The pattern of population density for Ankara between 1965–70 is analysed by the gradients of the negative exponential function of C.Clark which is a good approximation to actual intra-urban population distributions. Results show that Ankara is not very different from the B.Berry-type Non-Western model with a high population concentration at the center and a sharp density gradient declining also by time.


Central Density Occupancy Rate Residential Density Negative Exponential Function Metropolitan Center 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Özcan Esmer
    • 1
  1. 1.Middle East Technical UniversityAnkaraTurkey

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