Crowding: An Ecological Approach

  • Rajendra Kumar Srivastava
Part of the NATO Conference Series book series (NATOCS, volume 10)


This paper treats crowding as an ecological phenomenon and as an objective and behavioral construct. According to this approach crowding is overmanning which refers to the larger size of population than is needed for the number of tasks within a given behavior setting or environment. An equation for the quantative measure of overmanning (crowding) has been provided. Overmanning is shown to be associated with a variety of negative human-behavioral consequences. It is suggested that overmanning and its negative consequences can be controlled by keeping the population size small and expanding its enterprise scope and behavior repertoire.


Behavior Setting Ecological Approach Objective Fact Density Approach Ecological Psychology 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rajendra Kumar Srivastava
    • 1
  1. 1.Environmental Research and Development FoundationTucsonUSA

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