Individual and Cultural Differences in Coping with Crowds and Crowded Conditions

  • James K. Mikawa
Part of the NATO Conference Series book series (NATOCS, volume 10)


Crowds of people have become a familiar pattern in almost all urban centers as population has increasingly congregated in cities. Crowding has had numerous effects on the economic, political, and social existence of individuals living in the cities. From the psychological viewpoint, it is generally assumed that crowding has serious negative effects on the behavior of humans. However, this assumption has not been adequately supported by scientific evidence (Baron, Byrne and Griffith 1974; Freedman, 1975).


Japanese Subject Feeling Statement Crowded Condition Japanese Sample American Subject 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • James K. Mikawa
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Nevada, RenoRenoUSA

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