Crowding and Environmental Control

  • Carl I. Greenberg
Part of the NATO Conference Series book series (NATOCS, volume 10)


The research on the causes, consequences and mediating adaptive processes of crowding is viewed from a perceived control perspective. It is asserted that crowding is a result of uncontrollable inputs from others. Furthermore, exposure to crowded environments may result in a loss of perceived control over behavior-outcome contingencies, i.e., learned helplessness. In addition, loss of perceived control may result in the employment of ineffective coping mechanisms in individuals exposed to crowded environments; consequently, strengthening individuals’ loss of control perceptions. A pilot study provided some support for these assertions.


Withdrawal Behavior Crowded Environment Seat Position Behavior Constraint High Density Environment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carl I. Greenberg
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Nebraska at OmahaUSA

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