Crowding and Environmental Control
The research on the causes, consequences and mediating adaptive processes of crowding is viewed from a perceived control perspective. It is asserted that crowding is a result of uncontrollable inputs from others. Furthermore, exposure to crowded environments may result in a loss of perceived control over behavior-outcome contingencies, i.e., learned helplessness. In addition, loss of perceived control may result in the employment of ineffective coping mechanisms in individuals exposed to crowded environments; consequently, strengthening individuals’ loss of control perceptions. A pilot study provided some support for these assertions.
KeywordsWithdrawal Behavior Crowded Environment Seat Position Behavior Constraint High Density Environment
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