Social Determinants of Crowding

  • Jürgen Schultz-Gambard
Part of the NATO Conference Series book series (NATOCS, volume 10)


A review of the crowding literature shows that crowding has effects on social behavior. There also is some evidence that social factors might be important mediators for crowding. Yet there is a lack of empirical support. Tue present study investigates the separate effects of spatial density, group formation and interference on the experience of crowding. The results show that although the high density condition was given a negative evaluation and although deleterious aftereffects that indicated high density to produce stress were observed, there was neither a corresponding increase in selfrated anxiety, lethargy, depression, insecurity and arousal nor was there an increase in aggressiveness due to a density x interference interaction. In the group formation condition more positive social effects could be observed in high than in low density. Consequences for urban Jesign are discussed.


Density Condition Communication Condition Spatial Density Interference Condition Frustration Tolerance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jürgen Schultz-Gambard
    • 1
  1. 1.Universität Bielefeld — PH-Westf.LippeBielefeldW.Germany

Personalised recommendations