Experimental Investigations of the Determinants and Personal Conseouences of Crowding
Four laboratory experiments were conducted to test the contention that behavioral responses to crowding can be predicted by distinguishing between neutral and personal sources of the crowding experience. Manipulations of neutral crowding (relatively small rooms without windows) provoked a physical withdrawal from a target person and no negative emotional labeling besides “presently crowded”. Manipulations of personal crowding (such as the threat of an intrusive interview) provoked complex spatial adaptations and many negative emotional labels in addition to the rating of “crowded”.
KeywordsManipulation Check Threat Condition Target Person Small Room Large Room
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