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Experimental Investigations of the Determinants and Personal Conseouences of Crowding

  • Marilyn Rall
  • Daniel Stokols
  • Robert Russo
  • Alan Steinberg
  • Anthony Norbut
Part of the NATO Conference Series book series (NATOCS, volume 10)

Abstract

Four laboratory experiments were conducted to test the contention that behavioral responses to crowding can be predicted by distinguishing between neutral and personal sources of the crowding experience. Manipulations of neutral crowding (relatively small rooms without windows) provoked a physical withdrawal from a target person and no negative emotional labeling besides “presently crowded”. Manipulations of personal crowding (such as the threat of an intrusive interview) provoked complex spatial adaptations and many negative emotional labels in addition to the rating of “crowded”.

Keywords

Manipulation Check Threat Condition Target Person Small Room Large Room 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marilyn Rall
    • 1
  • Daniel Stokols
    • 2
  • Robert Russo
    • 3
  • Alan Steinberg
    • 1
  • Anthony Norbut
    • 1
  1. 1.Brooklyn CollegeUSA
  2. 2.University of CaliforniaUSA
  3. 3.Wayne State UniversityUSA

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