Advertisement

Icosahedral Cytoplasmic Deoxyriboviruses

  • Rakesh Goorha
  • Allan Granoff
Part of the Comprehensive Virology book series (CV, volume 14)

Abstract

Deoxyriboviruses having an apparent icosahedral symmetry and replicating in the cytoplasm have been titled “icosahedral cytoplasmic deoxyriboviruses” (ICDVs) (Kelly and Robertson, 1973; McAuslan and Armentrout, 1974). Members of this group are widely distributed in nature in a variety of hosts and include iridescent viruses from insects, lymphocystis virus from fish, amphibian viruses, African swine fever virus, and cauliflower mosaic and related viruses from plants (Granoff, 1969; Stoltz, 1971; Plowright, 1972; Kelly and Robertson, 1973). In this chapter we have chosen to retain the term “icosahedral cytoplasmic deoxyribovirus,” but because of the diversity of properties of these viruses this term is inadequate for classification and nomenclature pur poses. We might compare this term to grouping papovaviruses, adenoviruses, and herpesviruses under the heading of “icosahedral nuclear deoxyriboviruses.” Our usage of this term merely defines those viruses that have or may have icosahedral symmetry, appear to replicate in the cytoplasm, and contain DNA. It does not imply any taxonomic relationships and includes viruses from plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates. The designation “ICDV” is useful in distinguishing these viruses from the morphologically distinct and structurally complex poxviruses, which also replicate in the cytoplasm (Moss, 1974).

Keywords

Virus Particle Cauliflower Mosaic Virus Molar Rate African Swine Fever Virus Nonpermissive Temperature 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adldinger, K. K., Stone, S. S., Hess, W. R., and Bachrach, H. L., 1966, Extraction of infectious DNA from African swine fever virus, Virology 30 570.Google Scholar
  2. Almeida, J. D., Waterson, A. P., and Plowright, W., 1967, The morphological charac teristics of African swine fever virus and its resemblance to Tipula iridescent virus, Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 20 392.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, J. G., 1970, An iridescent virus infecting the mosquito Aedes Stimulans ,J. Invert. Pathol. 15 219.Google Scholar
  4. Armentrout, R. W., and McAuslan, B. R., 1974, RNA synthesis in cells infected with an icosahedral cytoplasmic deoxyvirus (frog virus 3), J. Virol. 13 1083.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Aubertin, A. M., and Longchampt, M. O., 1974, Thymidine kinase induction in FV 3-infected mouse cells, Virology 58 111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Aubertin, A., Palese, P., Tan, K. B., Vilagines, R., and McAuslan, B. R., 1971, Proteins of a polyhedral cytoplasmic deoxyvirus. III. Structure of frog virus 3 and location of virus-associated adenosine triphosphate phosphohydrolase, J. Virol. 8 643.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Aubertin, A., Hirth, C., Travo, C., Nonnenmacher, H., and Kirn, A., 1973, Preparation and properties of an inhibitory extract from frog virus 3 particles, J. Virol. 11 694.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Aubertin, A. M., Anton, M., Bingen, A., Elharrar, M., and Kirn, A., 1977, Solubilised viral proteins produce fatal hepatitis in mice, Nature (London) 265 456.Google Scholar
  9. Bailey, L., Ball, B. V., and Woods, R. D., 1976, An iridovirus from bees, J. Gen Virol. 31 459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Balls, M., and Ruben, L. N., 1968, Lymphoid tumours in amphibia A review, Prog. Exp. Tumour Res. 10 238.Google Scholar
  11. Batson, B. S., Johnston, M. R. L., Arnold, M. K., and Kelly, D. C., 1976, An iridescent virus from Simulium sp. (Diptera Simuliidae) in Wales, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 27 133.Google Scholar
  12. Bellett, A. J. D., 1968, The iridescent virus group, Adv. Virus Res. 13 225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Ben-Porat, T., Stehn, B., and Kaplan, A. S., 1976, Fate of parental herpesvirus DNA, Virology 71 412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bernard, G. W., Cooper, E. L., and Randell, M. L., 1969, Lamellar membrane encircu-lated viruses in erythrocytes of Ranapipiens, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 26 8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bingen-Brendel, A., Tripier, F., and Kirn, A., 1971, L’étude morphologique sequentielle du development du FV 3 sur cellular BHK 21, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 11 249.Google Scholar
  16. Bird, F. T., 1961, The development of Tipula iridescent virus in the crane fly, Tipula paludosa Meig., and the waxmoth, Galleria mellonella L., Can. J. Microbiol. 7 827.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bird, F. T., 1962, On the development of Tipula iridescent virus particles, Can. J. Microbiol. 8 533.Google Scholar
  18. Black, D. N., and Brown, F., 1976, Purification and physicochemical characteristics of African swine fever virus, J. Gen. Virol. 32 509.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Breese, S. S., and DeBoer, C. J., 1966, Electron microscope observations of African swine fever virus in tissue culture cells, Virology 28 420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Brunt, A. A., 1966, Partial purification, morphology, and serology of dahlia mosaic virus, Virology 28 778.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Brunt, A. A., 1971, Dahlia mosaic virus, Commonw. Mycol. Inst./ Assoc. Appl. Biol. Descript. Plant Viruses ,No. 51.Google Scholar
  22. Came, P. E., and Dardiri, A. H., 1969, Host specificity and serological disparity of African swine fever virus and amphibian polyhedral cytoplasmic viruses, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 130 128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Chapman, H. C., Peterson, J. J., Woodard, D. B., and Clark, T. B., 1968, New records of parasites of Ceratopogonidae, Mosq. News 28 123.Google Scholar
  24. Chapman, H. C., Clark, T. B., Anthony, D. W., and Glen, F. E., 1971, An iridescent virus from the larvae of Corethralla brakelyi (Diptera Chaoboridae) in Louisiana, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 18 284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Christmas, J. Y., and Howse, H. D., 1970, The occurrence of lymphocystis in Micropogon undulatus and Cynoscian arenius from Mississippi estuaries, Gulf Res.Rep.3 131.Google Scholar
  26. Clark, H. F., Brennan, J. C., Ziegel, R. F., and Karzon, D. T., 1968, Isolation and characterization of viruses from the kidneys of Rana pipiens with renal adenocarcinoma before and after passage in the red eft (Triturus viridescens), J. Virol. 2 629.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Clark, H. F., Gray, G., Fabian, F., Ziegel, R. F., and Karzon, D. T., 1969, Comparative studies of amphibian cytoplasmic virus strains isolated from the leopard frog, bullfrog, and newt, in Biology of Amphibian Tumors (M. Mizell, ed.), Recent Results in Cancer Research, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg.Google Scholar
  28. Coggins, L., 1968, A modified hemadsorption-inhibition test for African swine fever virus, Bull. Epizoot. Dis. Afr. 16 61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Cunningham, J. C., and Tinsley, T. W., 1968, A serological comparison of some iridescent non-occluded insect viruses, J. Gen. Virol. 3 1.Google Scholar
  30. Darlington, R. W., Granoff, A., and Breeze, D. C., 1966, Viruses and renal carcinoma of Rana pipiens. II. Ultrastructural studies and sequential development of virus isolated from normal and tumor tissue, Virology 29 149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Day, M. F., and Mercer, E. H., 1964, Properties of an iridescent virus from the beetle Sericesthispruinosa, Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 17 892.Google Scholar
  32. DeTray, D. E., 1963, African swine fever virus, Adv. Vet. Sci. 8 299.Google Scholar
  33. Elharrar, M., Hirth, C., BlanC., J., and Kirn, A., 1973, Pathogénie de l’hépatite toxique de la souris provoquée par le FV 3 (frog virus 3). Inhibition de la synthèse des macromolécules du foie, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 319 91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Elliott, R. M., Thelma, L., and Kelly, D. C., 1977, Serological relationships of an irridescent virus (type 25) recently isolated from Tipula sp. with two other iridescent viruses (types 2 and 22), Virology 81 309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Enjuanes, L., Carrascosa, A. L., and Viñuela, E., 1976, Isolation and properties of the DNA of African swine fever virus, J. Gen. Virol. 32 479.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Enjuanes, L., Cubero, I., and Viñuela, E., 1977, Sensitivity of macrophages from different species to African swine fever (ASF) virus, J. Gen. Virol. 34 455.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Federici, B. A. and Hazard, E. I., 1975, Iridovirus cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus in the fresh water daphnid Simocephalus expinosis, Nature 254 327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Fenner, F., 1976, Classification and nomenclature of viruses Second Report of International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, Intervirology 7 1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Fowler, M., and Robertson, J. S., 1971, Iridescent virus infection in field populations of Wiseana cervinata (Lepidoptera Hepialidae) and Witlesia Sp. (Lepidoptera Pyralidae) in New Zealand, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 19 154.Google Scholar
  40. Frenkel, N., and Roizman, B., 1972, RNA synthesis in cells infected with herpes simplex virus Control of transcription and of RNA abundance, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 69 2654.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Gaby, N. S. and Kucera, L. S., 1974, DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity associated with subviral particles of polyhedral cytoplasmic deoxyribovirus, J. Virol. 14 231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Ginsberg, H. S., 1969, Biochemistry of adenovirus infection, in The Biochemistry of Viruses (H. B. Levy, ed.), pp. 329–413, Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  43. Glitz, D. O., Hills, G. J., and Rivers, C. F., 1968, A comparison of Tipula and Sericesthis iridescent viruses, J. Gen. Virol. 3 209.Google Scholar
  44. Goorha, R., and Granoff, A., 1974a, Macromolecular synthesis in cells infected by frog virus 3.1. Virus-specific protein synthesis and its regulation, Virology 60 237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Goorha, R., and Granoff, A., 1914b ,Macromolecular synthesis in cells infected by frog virus 3. II. Evidence for post-transcriptional control of a viral structural protein, Virology 60 251.Google Scholar
  46. Goorha, R., Naegele, R. F., Purifoy, D., and Granoff, A., 1975, Macromolecular synthesis in cells infected by frog virus 3. III. Virus-specific protein synthesis by temperature-sensitive mutants, Virology 66 428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Goorha, R., Willis, D. B., and Granoff, A., 1977, Macromolecular synthesis in cells infected by frog virus 3. VI. Frog virus 3 replication is dependent on the cell nucleus, J. Virol. 21 802.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Goorha, R., Murti, G., Granoff, A., and Tirey, R., 1978, Macromolecular synthesis in cells infected by frog virus 3. VIII. The nucleus is a site of frog virus 3 DNA and RNA synthesis, Virology 84 32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Granoff, A., 1969, Viruses of Amphibia, Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 50 107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Granoff, A., Came, P. E., and Rafferty, K. A., 1965, The isolation and properties of viruses from Rana pipiens Their possible relationship to the renal adenocarcinoma of the leopard frog, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 126 237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Granoff, A., Gravell, M., and Darlington, R. W., 1969, Studies on the viral etiology of the renal adenocarcinoma of Rana pipiens (Lucké tumor), in Biology of Amphibian Tumors. (M. Mizell, ed.), Recent Results in Cancer Research, SpringerVerlag, Heidelberg.Google Scholar
  52. Gravell, M., and Cromeans, T. L., 1971, Mechanisms involved in the nongenetic reactivation of frog polyhedral deoxyribovirus Evidence for RNA polymerase in the virion, Virology 46 39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Gravell, M., and Granoff, A., 1970, Viruses and renal adenocarcinoma of Rana pipiens. IX. The influence of temperature and host cell on replication of frog polyhedral cytoplasmic deoxyribovirus, Virology 41 596.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Gravell, M., and Naegele, R. F., 1970, Nongenetic reactivation of frog polyhedral cytoplasmic deoxyribovirus, Virology 40 170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Guir, M., Braunwald, J., and Kirn, A., 1970, Inhibition de la synthèse du DNA et des RNA cellulaires dans les cellules KB infectées avec le virus 3 de la grenouille (FV 3). C. R. Acad. Sci. 270 2605.Google Scholar
  56. Hasan, S., Croizier, G., Vago, C., and Duthoit, J.-L., 1970, Infection a virus irisant dans une population naturelle d’Aedes detritus Haliday en France, Ann. Zool. Ecol. Anim. 2 295.Google Scholar
  57. Hess, W. R., 1971, African swine fever virus, Virol. Monogr. 9 1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Holland, J. J., and Kiehn, E. D., 1968, Specific cleavage of viral proteins as steps in the synthesis and maturation of enteroviruses, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci . USA 60 1015.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Hollings, M., and Stone, O., 1969, Carnation viruses Carnation etched ring. Report, Glasshouse Crops Res. Inst. Annu. Rep. ,1968, p. 162.Google Scholar
  60. Houts, G. E., Gravell, M., and Darlington, R. W., 1970, Base composition and molecular weight of DNA from a frog polyhedral cytoplasmic deoxyribovirus, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 135 232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Houts, G. E ., Gravell, M., and Granoff, A., 1974, Electron microscopic observation of early events of frog virus 3 replication, Virology 58 589.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Howse, H. D., and Christmas, J.Y., 1971, Observations on the ultrastructure of lymphocystis virus in the Atlantic croaker, Micropogon undulatus (Linnaeus), Virology 44 211.Google Scholar
  63. Hull, R., and Shepherd, R. J., 1977, The structure of cauliflower mosaic virus genome, Virology 79 216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Kalmakoff, J., and Robertson, J. S., 1970, Serological relationship of Wiseana iridescent virus to other iridescent viruses, Proc. Univ. Otago Med. Sch. 48 16.Google Scholar
  65. Kalmakoff, J., Moore, S., and Pottinger, R. P., 1972, An iridescent virus from grass grub Costelytra zealandica Serological study, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 20 70.Google Scholar
  66. Kaminski, S., Clark, H. F., and Karzon, D. T., 1969, Comparative immune response to amphibian cytoplasmic viruses assayed by the complement fixation and gel immunodiffusion techniques, J. Immunol. 103 260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Kang, H. S., and McAuslan, B. R., 1972, Virus-associated nucleases Location and properties of deoxyribonucleases and ribonucleases in purified frog virus 3, J. Virol. 10 202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Kang, H. S., Eshbach, T. B., White, D. A., and Levine, A. J., 1971, DNA replication in SV40-infected cells. IV. Two different requirements for protein synthesis during SV40 DNA replication, J. Virol. 7 112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Kates, J. R., and McAuslan, B. R., 1967a, Messenger RNA synthesis by a coated viral genome, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci . USA 57 314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Kates, J. R., and McAuslan, B. R., 1967b, Poxvirus DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci . USA 58 134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Kelly, D. C., 1972a, Patterns of nucleic acid synthesis in iridescent virus infected cells, Monogr. Virol. 6 9.Google Scholar
  72. Kelly, D. C., 19726, The replication of some iridescent viruses in cell cultures, Ph.D. thesis, University of Oxford.Google Scholar
  73. Kelly, D. C., 1975, Frog virus 3 replication; electron microscope observations on the sequence of infection in chick embryo fibroblasts, J. Gen. Virol. 26 71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Kelly, D. C., and Atkinson, M. A., 1975, Frog virus 3 replication Electron microscope observations on the terminal stages of infection in chronically infected cell cultures, J. Gen. Virol. 28 391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Kelly, D. C., and Avery, R. J., 1974a, The DNA content of four small iridescent viruses Genome size, redundancy and homology determined by renaturation kinetics, Virology 57 425.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Kelly, D. C., and Avery, R. J., 19746, Frog virus 3 deoxyribonucleic acid, J. Gen. Virol. 24 339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Kelly, D. C., and Robertson, J. S., 1973, Icosahedral cytoplasmic deoxyriboviruses, J. Gen. Virol. (Suppl.) 20 17.Google Scholar
  78. Kelly, D. C., and Tinsley, T. W., 1972, The proteins of iridescent virus types 2 and 6, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 19 273.Google Scholar
  79. Kelly, D. C., and Tinsley, T. W., 1973, RNA polymerase activity associated with particles of iridescent virus types 2 and 6, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 22 199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Kelly, D. C., and Tinsley, T. W., 1974, Iridescent virus replication Patterns of nucleic acid synthesis in insect cells infected with iridescent virus types 2 and 6, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 24 169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Kelly, D. C., and Vance, D. E., 1973, The lipid content of two iridescent viruses, J. Gen Virol 21 417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Kirn, A., Gut, J. P., Bingen, A., and Hirth, C., 1972, Acute hepatitis produced by frog virus 3 in mice, Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 36 394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Kitajima, E. W., Betty, J. A., and Costa, A. S., 1973, Strawberry veinbanding virus, a member of the cauliflower mosaic virus group, J. Gen. Virol. 20 117.Google Scholar
  84. Krell, P., and Lee, P. E., 1974, Polypeptides in Tipula iridescent virus (TIV) and in TIV-infected hemocytes of Galleria mellonella (L) larvae, Virology 60 315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Kucera, L., 1970, Effects of temperature on frog polyhedral cytoplasmic deoxyribovirus multiplication Thermosensitivity of initiation, replication, encapsidation of viral DNA, Virology 42 576.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Kucera, L. S., and Granoff, A., 1969, Induction and regulation of DNA nucleotidyl transferase activity in fish cells infected with frog virus 3, Virology 37 455.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Lehane, D. E., Clark, H. F., and Karzon, D. T., 1968, Antigenic relationships among frog viruses demonstrated by plaque reduction and neutralization kinetics tests, Virology 34 590.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Lunger, P. D., and Came, P. E., 1966, Cytoplasmic viruses associated with Lucke turnors, Virology 30 116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Maes, R., and Granoff, A., 1967, Viruses and renal carcinoma of Rana pipiens. IV. Nucleic acid synthesis in frog virus 3-infected BHK 21/13 cells, Virology 33 491.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Malmquist, W. A., and Hay, D., 1960, Hemadsorption and cytopathic effect produced by African swine fever virus in swine bone marrow and buffy coat cultures, Am. J. Vet.Res.21–104.Google Scholar
  91. Matta, J. F., 1970, The characterization of a mosquito iridescent virus (MIV). II. Physico-chemical characterization, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 16 157.Google Scholar
  92. Matta, J. F., and Lowe, R. E., 1970, The characterization of a mosquito iridescent virus (MIV). Biological characteristics, infectivity, and pathology, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 6 38.Google Scholar
  93. Mattern, C. F. T., Diamond, L. S., and Daniel, W. A., 1972, Viruses of Entamoeba histolytica. II. Morphogenesis of the polyhedral particle (ABRM2HK-9)HB-301 and the filamentous agent (ABRM)2HK-9, J. Virol. 9 342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. McAuslan, B. R., 1969, The biochemistry of poxvirus replication, in The Biochemistry of Viruses (H. B. Levy, ed.), pp. 361–413, Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  95. McAuslan, B. R., and Armentrout, R. W., 1974, The biochemistry of icosahedral cytoplasmic deoxyriboviruses, Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 68 77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. McAuslan, B. R., and Smith, W., 1968, DNA synthesis in frog virus 3-infected mamalian cells, J. Virol. 2 1006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Mcintosh, A. H., and Kimura, M., 1974, Replication of the insect Chilo iridescent virus in Poikilothermic vertebrate cell line, Intervirology 4 257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Meagher, R. G., Shepherd, R. J., and Boyer, H. W., 1977, The structure of cauliflower mosaic virus. I. A restriction endonuclease map of cauliflower mosaic virus DNA, Virology 80 362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Midlige, F. H., and Malsberger, R. G., 1968, In vitro morphology and maturation of lymphocystis virus, J. Virol. 2 830.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Monnier, C., and DeVauchelle, G., 1976, Enzyme activities associated with an invertebrate iridovirus Nucleotide phosphohydrolase activity associated with iridescent virus type 6 (CIV), J. Virol. 19 180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Morris, O. N., 1970, Metabolic changes in diseased insects. III. Nucleic acid metabolism in lipidoptera infected by densonucleosis and Tipula iridescent virus, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 16 180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Morris, V. L., Spear, P. G., and Roizman, B., 1966, Some biophysical properties of frog viruses and their DNA, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci . USA 56 1155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Moss, B., 1974, Reproduction of poxviruses, in Comprehensive Virology ,Vol. 3 (H. Fraenkel-Conrat and R. R. Wagner, eds.), pp. 405–474, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  104. Naegele, R. F., and Granoff, A., 1971, Viruses and renal carcinoma of Rana pipiens. XI. Isolation of FV 3 temperature-sensitive mutants; complementation and genetic recombination, Virology 44 286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Ortin, J., and Viñuela, E., 1977, Requirement of cell nucleus for African swine fever virus replication in Vero cells, J. Virol. 21 902.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Pickett-Heaps, J. D., 1972, A possible virus infection in green alga Oedogonium, J. Phycol. 8 44.Google Scholar
  107. Pirone, T. P., Pound, G. S., and Shepherd, R. J., 1961, Properties and serology of purified cauliflower mosaic virus, Phytopathology 51 541.Google Scholar
  108. Plowright, W., 1972, African swine fever virus and other large DNA viruses with cubic symmetry and cytoplasmic synthesis, in Proceedings of the Second International Congress for Virology ,p. 264, Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  109. Pogo, B. G. T., and Dales, S., 1971, Biogenesis of vaccinia Separation of early stages from maturation by means of hydroxyurea, Virology 43 144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Polatnick, J., and Hess, W. R., 1970, Altered thymidine kinase activity in culture cells inoculated with African swine fever virus, Am. J. Vet. Res. 31 1609.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Polatnick, J., and Hess, W. R., 1972, Increased DNA polymerase activity in African swine fever virus infected cells, Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 38 383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Purifoy, D., Naegele, R. F., and Granoff, A., 1973, Viruses and renal carcinoma of Rana pipiens. XIV. Temperature-sensitive mutants of frog virus 3 with defective encapsidation, Virology 54 525.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Robertson, J. S., and Longworth, J. F., 1973, A comparison of iridescent virus types 1, 2, and 9,J. Invertebr. Pathol. 22 219.Google Scholar
  114. Rottman, F., Shatkin, A. J., and Perry, R. P., 1974, Sequences containing methylated nucleotides at the 5’ termini of messenger RNAs Possible implications for processing, Cell 3 197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Rubio-Huertos, M., Castro, S., Fujisawa, I., and Matsui, C., 1972, Electron microscopy of the formation of carnation etched-ring virus intracellular inclusions, J. Gen. Virol. 15 257.Google Scholar
  116. Rungger, D., Rastelli, M., Braendle, E., and Malsberger, R. G., 1971, A virus-like particle associated with lesions in muscles of Octopus vulgaris, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 17 72.Google Scholar
  117. Russell, G. J., Follett, E. A. C., Subak-Sharpe, J. H., and Harrison, B. D., 1971, The double-stranded DNA of cauliflower mosaic virus, J. Gen. Virol. 11 129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Schnepf, E., Soeder, C. J., and Hegiwald, E., 1970, Polyhedral viruslike particles lysing the aquatic-phycomycete Aphelidium sp., a parasite of green alga Scenedesmus armatus, Virology 42 482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Shepherd, R. J., 1970, Cauliflower mosaic virus, Commonw. Mycol. Assoc. Appl. Biol. Descript. Plant Viruses ,No. 24.Google Scholar
  120. Shepherd, R. J., Wakeman, R. J., and Romano, R. R., 1968, DNA in cauliflower mosaic virus, Virology 36 150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Shepherd, R. J., Bruening, G. E., and Wakeman, R. J., 1970, Double-stranded DNA from cauliflower mosaic virus, Virology 41 339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Sigel, M. M., Lopez, D. M., Beasley, A. R., and Caliguri, L. A., 1971, Virus-cell interaction in lymphocystis disease of fish, in Viruses Affecting Man and Animals (M. Sanders and M. Schaeffer, eds.), p. 124, Warren H. Green, St. Louis.Google Scholar
  123. Silberstein, H., and August, J. T., 1973, Phosphorylation of animal virus proteins by a virion protein kinase, J. Virol. 12 511.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Silberstein, H., and August J. T., 1976, Characterization of a virion protein kinase as a virus-specified enzyme, J. Biol. Chem. 251 3185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Silberstein, H, McAuslan, B. R., and August, J. T., 1972, Protein kinase and phosphate acceptor proteins of animal viruses, Fed. Proc. 31 407.Google Scholar
  126. Smith, K. M., 1958, A study of early stages of infection with Tipula iridescent virus, Parasitology 48 459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Smith, K. M., 1967, Insect Virology ,Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  128. Smith, K. M., and Hill, G. J., 1962, Replication and ultrastructure of insect viruses, in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Congress for Entomology ,Vol. 2, p. 823, Vienna.Google Scholar
  129. Smith, W. R., and McAuslan, B. R., 1969, Biophysical properties of frog virus 3 and its DNA Fate of radioactive virus in early stages of infection, J. Virol. 4 332.Google Scholar
  130. Southern, E. M., 1975, Detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by gel electrophoresis, J. Mol. Biol. 98 503.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Stebhens, W. E., and Johnston, M. R. L., 1966, The viral nature of Pirhemocyton tar entöle ,J. Ultrastruct. Res. 15 543.Google Scholar
  132. Stoltz, D. B., 1971, The structure of icosahedral cytoplasmic deoxyriboviruses, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 37 219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Stoltz, D. B., 1973, The structure of icosahedral cytoplasmic deoxyriboviruses. II. An alternative model, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 43 58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Stoltz, D. B., Hilsenhoff, W. L., and Stich, H. F., 1968, A virus disease in Chironomus plumosus,J. Invertebr. Pathol. 12 118.Google Scholar
  135. Tan, K. B., and McAuslan, B. R., 1971, Proteins of polyhedral cytoplasmic deoxyriboviruses. 1. The structural polypeptides of FV 3, Virology 45 200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Tan, K. B., and McAuslan, B. R., 1972, Binding of DNA-dependent DNA polymerase to poxvirus, J. Virol. 9 70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Tezuka, N., and Taniguchi, T., 1972, Structural proteins of cauliflower mosaic virus, Virology 48 277.Google Scholar
  138. Thomas, R. S., 1961, The chemical composition and particle weight of Tipula iridescent virus, Virology 14 240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Tinsley, T. W., Robertson, J. S., Rivers, C. F., and Service, M. W., 1971, An iridescent virus of Aedes cantans in Great Britain, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 18 427.Google Scholar
  140. Toth, R., and Wilce, R. T., 1972, Virus-like particles in marine alga Chorda tomentosa. Lynfbye (Phaeophyceae), J. Phycol. 8 126.Google Scholar
  141. Tripier, F. Braunwald, J., Markovic, L., and Kirn, A., 1977, Frog virus 3 morphogenesis Effect of temperature and metabolic inhibitors, J. Gen. Virol. 37 39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Tweedell, K. S., and Granoff, A., 1968, Viruses and renal carcinoma of Rana pipiens. V. Effect of frog virus 3 on developing embryos and larvae, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 40 407.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Vago, C., Rioux, J.-A., Duthoit, J. L., and Dedet, J.-P., 1969, Infection spontanée a virus irisant dans une population d’Aedes detritus (Hal., 1933) des environs de Tunis, Ann. Parasitol. Hum. Comp. 44 667.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Vilagines, R., and McAuslan, B. R., 1971, Proteins of polyhedral cytoplasmic deoxy-ribovirus. II. Nucleotide phosphohydrolase activity associated with frog virus 3, J. Virol. 7 619.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Wagner, G. W., and Paschke, J. D., 1977, A comparison of the DNA of the R and T strains of mosquito iridescent virus, Virology 81 298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Wagner, G. W., Paschke, J. D., Campbell, W. R., and Webb, S. R., 1973, Biochemical and biophysical properties of two strains of mosquito iridescent virus, Virology 52 72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Wagner, G. W., Paschke, J. D., Campbell, W. R., and Webb, S. R., 1974, Proteins of two strains of mosquito iridescent virus, Intervirology 3 97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Walker, R., 1962, Fine structure of lymphocystis virus of fish, Virology 18 503.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Walker, R., and Weissenberg, R., 1965, Conformity of light and electron microscopic studies on virus particle distribution in lymphocystis tumor cells of fish, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 126 375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Weiser, J., 1965, A new virus of mosquito larvae, Bull. WHO 33 586.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Weiser, J., 1968, Iridescent virus from the black fly Simulium ornatum Meigen in Czechoslovakia,J. Invertebr. Pathol. 12 36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Weissenberg, R., 1965, Fifty years of research on lymphocystis diseases of fishes (1914–1964), Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 126 362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Willis, D., and Granoff, A., 1974, Lipid composition of frog virus 3, Virology 61 256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Willis, D., and Granoff, A., 1976a, Macromolecular synthesis in cells infected by frog virus 3. IV. Regulation of virus-specific RNA synthesis, Virology 70 399.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Willis, D., and Granoff, A., 1976b, Macromolecular synthesis in cells infected by frog virus 3. V. The absence of polyadenylic acid in the majority of virus-specific RNA species, Virology 73 543.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Willis, D. B., and Granoff, A., 1978, Macromolecular synthesis in cells infected by frog virus 3. IX. Two temporal classes of early viral RNA, Virology 86 443.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Willis, D. B., Goorha, R., Miles, M., and Granoff, A., 1977, Macromolecular synthesis in cells infected by frog virus 3. VII. Transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of virus gene expression, J. Virol. 24 326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Wold, W. S. Green, M., Brackmann, K. H., Cartus, M. A., and Devine, C., 1976, Genome expression and mRNA maturation at late stages of productive adenovirus types 2 infection, J. Virol. 20 465.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Wolf, K., Gravell, M., and Malsberger, R. G., 1966, Lymphocystis virus Isolation and propagation in centrachid fish cell lines, Science 151 1004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Wolf, K., Bullock, G. L., Dunbar, C. E., and Quimby, M. C., 1968, Tadpole edema virus a viscerotrophic pathogen for anuran amphibians, J. Infect. Dis. 118 253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Wrigley, N. G., 1969, An electron microscopic study of the structure of Sericesthis iridescent virus, J. Gen. Virol. 5 123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Wrigley, N. G., 1970, An electron microscope study of the structure of Tipula iridescent virus,J. Gen. Virol. 6 169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Xeros, N., 1964, Phagocytosis of virus in Tipula paludosa Meigen, J. Insect Pathol. 6 225.Google Scholar
  164. Yu, K., Kowalski, J., and Cheevers, W., 1975, DNA synthesis in polyoma virus infection. III. Mechanism of inhibition of viral DNA replication by cycloheximide, J. Virol. 15 1409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Zwillenberg, L. O., and Wolf, K., 1968, Ultrastructure of lymphocystis virus,J. Virol. 2 393.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rakesh Goorha
    • 1
  • Allan Granoff
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of VirologySt. Jude Children’s Research HospitalMemphisUSA

Personalised recommendations