• Frederick L. Schaffer
Part of the Comprehensive Virology book series (CV, volume 14)


The name “calicivirus” is derived from the cup-shaped (chalice or kalyx) indentations observed on the surface of virions negatively stained with phosphotungstate. The caliciviruses, whose recognized members include vesicular exanthema of swine virus, feline calicivirus (formerly feline Picornavirus), and San Miguel sea lion virus, were provisionally classified as a genus of the family Picornaviridae (Melnick et al., 1974; Fenner, 1976). Based on the difference in morphology and the observa tion that caliciviruses contain only one major polypeptide, Burroughs and Brown (1974) suggested that they constitute a separate family, Caliciviridae. Although this suggestion met with some opposition (Cooper, 1974), newer information indicates that the genome strategy of caliciviruses differs significantly from that of typical picornaviruses. Consequently, the Picornavirus Study Group of the ICTV has recently recommended that the caliciviruses be excluded from the Picornaviridae and that a new study group be formed to consider them as a separate family (Cooper et al., 1978).


Tobacco Mosaic Virus Buoyant Density Feral Swine Swine Virus Feline Calicivirus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adldinger, H. K., Lee, K. M., and Gillespie, J. H., 1969, Extraction of infectious ribonucleic acid from a feline Picornavirus, Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 28 245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Akers, T. G., Smith, A. W., Latham, A. B., and Watkins, H. M. S., 1974, Calicivirus antibodies in California gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) and Steiler sea lions (Eumetopias jupatus), Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 46 175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Almeida, J. D., Waterson, A. P., Prydie, J., and Fletcher, E. W. L., 1968, The structure of a feline Picornavirus and its relevance to cubic viruses in general, Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 25 105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bachrach, H. L., and Hess, W. R., 1973, Animal picornaviruses with a single major species of capsid protein, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 55 141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bankowski, R. A., 1965, Vesicular exanthema, Adv. Vet. Sci . Comp. Med. 10 23.Google Scholar
  6. Bittle, J. L., and Rubic, W. J., 1976, Immunization against feline calicivirus infection, Am. J. Vet. Res. 37 275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Black, D., and Brown, F., 1975J1976, A major difference in the strategy of the calici-and picornaviruses and its significance in classification, Intervirology 6 57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Black, D. N., and Brown, F., 1978, Proteins induced by infection with caliciviruses, J. Gen. Virol. 38 75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Black, D. N., Burroughs, J. N., Harris, T. J. R., and Brown, F., 1978, The structure and replication of calicivirus RNA, Nature (London) ,274 614.Google Scholar
  10. Breese, S. S., Jr., and Dardiri, A. H., 1977, Electron microscope observations on a virus transmissible from pinnipeds to swine, J. Gen. Virol. 36 221.Google Scholar
  11. Bürki, F., 1965, Picornaviruses of cats, Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 15 690.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bürki, F., and Pichler, L., 1971, Further biochemical testing of feline picornaviruses, Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 33 126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Burki, F., Starustka, B., and Ruttner, O., 1976, Attempts to serologically classify feline caliciviruses on a national and an international basis, Infect. Immun. 14 876.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Burroughs, J. N., and Brown, F., 1974, Physico-chemical evidence for re-classification of the caliciviruses, J. Gen. Virol. 22 281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Burroughs, J. N., and Brown, F., 1978, Presence of a covalently linked protein on calicivirus RNA, J. Gen. Virol. 41 443.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Burroughs, N., Doel, T., and Brown, F., 1978a, Relationship of San Miguel sea lion virus to other members of the calicivirus group, Intervirology 10 51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Burroughs, J. N., Doel, T. R., Smale, C. J., and Brown, F., 19786, A model for vesicular exanthema virus, the prototype of the calicivirus group, J. Gen. Virol. 40 161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Chappuis, G., and Stellmann, C., 1974, Biomathematical system of relationship and dominance for classification of feline Picornavirus, J. Biol. Stand. 2 319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Cooper, P. D., 1974, Towards a more profound basis for the classification of viruses, Intervirology 4 317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Cooper, P. D., Agol, V. I., Bachrach, H. L., Brown, F., Ghendon, Y., Gibbs, A. J., Gillespie, J. H., Lonberg-Holm, K., Mandel, B., Melnick, J. L., Mohanty, S. B., Povey, R. C., Rueckert, R. R., Schaffer, F. L., and Tyrrell, D. A. J., 1978, Picor-naviridae Second report, Intervirology 10 165.Google Scholar
  21. Denoya, C. D., Scodeller, E. A., Vasquez, C., and La Torre, J. L., 1978, Foot and mouth disease virus. II. Endoribonuclease activity within purified virions, Virology 89 67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Ehresmann, D. W., 1978, Studies on calicivirus genomic replication and transcription Characterization of RNA from virions and infected cells, thesis, University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  23. Ehresmann, D. W., and Schaffer, F. L., 1977, RNA synthesized in calicivirus-infected cells is atypical of picornaviruses, J. Virol. 22 572.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Fastier, L. B., 1957, A new feline virus isolated in tissue culture, Am. J. Vet. Res. 18 382.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Fenner, F., 1976, Classification and nomenclature of viruses. Second report of the international committee on taxomy of viruses, Intervirology 7 1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Fenner, F., McAuslan, B. R., Mims, C. A., Sambrook, J., and White, D. O., 1974, The Biology of Animal Viruses ,2nd ed., Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  27. Flanegan, J. B., Pettersson, R. F., Ambros, V., Hewlett, M. J., and Baltimore, D., 1977, Covalent linkage of a protein to a defined nucleotide sequence at the 5’-terminus of virion and replicative intermediate RNAS of poliovirus, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci . USA 74 961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Flewett, T. H., and Davies, H., 1976, Caliciviruses in man, Lancet 1 31.Google Scholar
  29. Fretz, M. K., 1978, Characterization of the virus-specific proteins synthesized in cells infected with caliciviruses, thesis, University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  30. Fretz, M., and Schaffer, F. L., 1978, Calicivirus proteins in infected cells Evidence for a capsid polypeptide precursor, Virology 89 318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Gillespie, J. H., and Scott, F. W., 1973, Feline viral infections, Adv. Vet. Sci . Comp. Med. 17 163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Gilmartin, W. G., Delong, R. L., Smith, A. W., Sweeney, J. C., De Lappe, B. W., Risebrough, R. W., Griner, L. A., Dailey, M. D., and Peakall, D. B., 1976, Premature parturition in the California sea lion, J. Wildl. Dis. 12 104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Hackett, A. J., 1961, The cellular changes produced by two variants within type E54 of vesicular exanthema of swine virus in tissue culture, Virology 15 102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Hackett, A. J., 1962, The photodynamic effects of acridine orange on an RNA virus (vesicular exanthema), Photochem. Photobiol. 1 147.Google Scholar
  35. Hoover, E. A., and Kahn, D. E., 1973, Lesions produced by feline picornaviruses of different virulence in pathogen-free cats, Vet. Pathol. 10 307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Hunter, T. R., Hunt, T., Knowland, J., and Zimmern, D., 1976, Messenger RNA for the coat protein of tobacco mosaic virus, Nature (London) 260 759.Google Scholar
  37. Jamison, R. M. and Mayor, H. D., 1966, Comparative study of seven picornaviruses of man, J. Bacteriol. 91 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Jensen, M., and Coates, S. R., 1976, Defective interfering particles of feline calicivirus, Abstr. Annu. Meet. Am. Soc. Microbiol. S41 211.Google Scholar
  39. Kahn, D. E., and Hoover, E. A., 1976, Feline caliciviral disease Experimental immunoprophylaxis, Am. J. Vet. Res. 37 279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Kahn, D. E., Hoover, E. A., and Bittle, J. L., 1975, Induction of immunity to feline caliciviral disease, Infect. Immun. 11 1003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Kalunda, M., Lee, K. M., Holmes, D. F., and Gillespie, J. H., 1975, Serologic classifi cation of feline caliciviruses by plaque-reduction neutralization and immunodiffusion, Am. J. Vet. Res. 36 353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Kapikian, A. Z., Feinstone, S. M., Purcell, R. H., Wyatt, R. G., Thornhill, T. S., Kalica, A. R., and Chanock, R. M., 1975, Detection and identification by immune electron microscopy of fastidious agents associated with respiratory illness, acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis, and hepatitis A, in Perspectives in Virology ,Vol. 9 (M. Pollard, ed.), pp. 9–47, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  43. Keith, J., and Fraenkel-Conrat, H., 1975, Tobacco mosaic virus RNA carries 5’-ter-minal triphosphorylated guanosine blocked by 5’-linked 7-methyl-guanosine, FEBS Lett. 57 31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Lee, K. M., and Gillespie, J. H., 1973, Thermal and pH stability of feline calicivirus, Infect. Immun. 7 678.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Lee, Y. F., Nomoto, A., Detjen, B. M., and Wimmer, E., 1977, A protein covalently linked to poliovirus genome RNA, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci . USA 74 59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Levintow, L. 1974, The reproduction of picornaviruses, in Comprehensive Virology ,Vol. 2 (H. Fraenkel-Conrat and R. R. Wagner, eds.), pp. 109–171, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  47. Love, D. N., 1973, The effect of DEAE-dextran on the infectivity of a feline calicivirus and its RNA, Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 41 52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Love, D. N., 1976, Feline calicivirus Purification of virus and extraction and characterization of its ribonucleic acid, Cornell Vet. 66 498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Love, D. N., and Donaldson-Wood, C., 1975, Replication of a strain of feline calicivirus in organ culture, Arch. Virol. 47 167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Love, D. N., and Jones, R. F., 1974, Studies on the buoyant density of a feline calici-virus, Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 44 142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Love, D. N., and Sabine, M., 1975, Electron microscopic observation of feline kidney cells infected with a feline calicivirus, Arch. Virol. 48 213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Madeley, C. R., 1979, A comparison of the features of astroviruses and caliciviruses seen in samples of feces by electron microscopy,J. Infect. Dis. 139 519.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Madeley, C. R., and Cosgrove, B. P., 1976, Caliciviruses in man, Lancet 1 199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Madin, S. H., 1973, Pigs, sea lions, and vesicular exanthema, in Second International Conference on Foot and Mouth Disease (M. Pollard, ed.), pp. 78–81, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  55. Madin, S. H., 1975, Vesicular exanthema, in Diseases of Swine ,4th ed., (H. W. Dunne and A. D. Leman, eds.), pp. 286–307, Iowa State University Press, Ames, la.Google Scholar
  56. Madin, S. H., and Traum, J., 1953, Experimental studies with vesicular exanthema of swine, Vet. Med. 48 443.Google Scholar
  57. Madin, S. H., and Traum, J., 1955, Vesicular exanthema of swine, Bacteriol. Rev. 19 6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Madin, S. H., Smith, A. W., and Akers, T. G., 1976, Current status caliciviruses isolated from marine mammals and their relationship to caliciviruses of terrestrial animals, in Wildlife Diseases (L. A. Page, ed.), pp. 197–204, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  59. Mattern, C. F. T., 1977, Symmetry in virus architecture, in The Molecular Biology of Animal Viruses ,Vol. 1 (D. P. Nayak, ed.), pp. 1–39, Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  60. McClain, M. E., Hackett, A. J., and Madin, S. H., 1958, Plaque morphology and pathogenicity of vesicular exanthema virus, Science 127 1391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Melnick, J. L., Agol, V. I., Bachrach, H. L., Brown, F., Cooper, P. D., Fiers, W., Gard, S., Gear, J. H. S., Ghendon, Y., Kasza, L., LaPlaca, M., Mandel, B., McGregor, S., Mohanty, S. B., Plummer, G., Rueckert, R. R., Schaffer, F. L., Tagaya, I., Tyrrell, D. A. J., Voroshilova, M., and Wenner, H. A., 1974, Picorna-viridae, Intervirology 4 303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Middleton, P. J., Szymanski, M. T., and Pcetric, M., 1977, Viruses associated with acute gastroenteritis in young children, Am. J. Dis. Child. 131 733.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Milek, M., Wooley, R. E., and Blue, J. L., 1976, Replication of feline herpesvirus and feline calicivirus in cell and organ cultures, Am. J. Vet. Res. 37 723.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Moore, D. M., 1977, Characterization of three antigenic particles of swine vesicular disease virus, J. Gen. Virol. 34 431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Nardelli, L., Lodetti, E., Gualandi, G. L., Burrows, R., Goodridge, D., Brown, F., and Cartwright, B., 1968, A foot and mouth disease syndrome in pigs caused by an enterovirus, Nature (London) 219 1275.Google Scholar
  66. Newman, J. F. E., Rowlands, D. J., and Brown, F., 1973, A physico-chemical subgrouping of the mammalian picornaviruses, J. Gen. Virol. 18 171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Nomoto, A., Detjen, B., Pozzatti, R., and Wimmer, E., 1977, The location of the polio genome protein in viral RNAS and its implication for RNA synthesis, Nature (London) 268 208.Google Scholar
  68. Oglesby, A. S., Schaffer, F. L., and Madin, S. H., 1971, Biochemical and biophysical properties of vesicular exanthema of swine virus, Virology 44 329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Olsen, R. G., Kahn, D. E., Hoover, E. A., Saxe, N. J., and Yohn, D. S., 1974, Dif ferences in acute and convalescent-phase antibodies of cats infected with feline picornaviruses, Infect. Immun. 10 375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Peterson, J. E., and Studdert, M. J., 1970, Feline Picornavirus. Structure of the virus and electron microscopic observations on infected cell cultures, Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 32 249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Pfefferkorn, E. R., and Shapiro, D., 1974, Reproduction of togaviruses, in Comprehensive Virology Vol. 2 (H. Fraenkel-Conrat and R. R. Wagner eds.), pp. 171–230, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  72. Pichler, L., 1972, Bestimmung der Dichte feliner Picornaviren im CsCl-Gradienten, Zentralbl. Bakteriol. Parasitenkd. Infectionskr. Hyg. Abt. Orig. Reihe A 222 162.Google Scholar
  73. Povey, R. C., 1974, Serological relationships among feline caliciviruses, Infect. Immun. 10 1307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Povey, R. C., and Hale, C. J., 1974, Experimental infections with feline caliciviruses (picornaviruses) in specific-pathogen-free kittens, J. Comp. Pathol. 84 245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Povey, R. C., and Ingersoll, J., 1975, Cross-protection among feline caliciviruses, Infect. Immun. 11 877.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Prato, C. M., Akers, T. G., and Smith, A. W., 1974, Serological evidence of calicivirus transmission between marine and terrestrial mammals, Nature (London) 249 255.Google Scholar
  77. Prato, C. M., Akers, T. G., and Smith, A. W., 1977, Calicivirus antibodies in wild fox populations, J. Wildl. Dis. 13 448.Google Scholar
  78. Reinganum, C., Robertson, J. S., and Tinsley, T. W., 1978, A new group of RNA viruses from insects, J. Gen. Virol. 40 195.Google Scholar
  79. Rekosh, D. M. K., 1977, The molecular biology of picornaviruses, in The Molecular Biology of Animal Viruses ,Vol. 1, pp. 63–110, Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  80. Ritchie, A. E., and Fernelius, A. L., 1969, Characterization of bovine viral diarrhea viruses. V. Morphology of characteristic particles studied by electron microscopy, Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 28 369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Rowlands, D. J., Sangar, D. V., and Brown, F., 1971, Buoyant density of picor-naviruses in caesium salts, J. Gen. Virol. 13 141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Rueckert, R. R., 1976, On the structure and morphogenesis of picornaviruses, in Comprehensive Virology ,Vol. 6 (H. Fraenkel-Conrat and R. R. Wagner, eds.), pp. 131–213, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  83. Sabine, M., and Hyne, R. H. J., 1970, Isolation of a feline Picornavirus from cheetahs with conjunctivitis and glossitis, Vet. Rec. 87 794.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Sangar, D. V., Rowlands, D. J., Harris, T. J. R., and Brown, F., 1977, Protein covalently linked to foot-and-mouth disease virus RNA, Nature (London) 268 648.Google Scholar
  85. Sawyer, J. C., 1976, Vesicular exanthema of swine and San Miguel sea lion virus, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 169 707.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Schaffer, F. L., and Soergel, M. E., 1973, Biochemical and biophysical characterization of calicivirus isolates from pinnipeds, Intervirology 1 210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Schaffer, F. L., and Soergel, M. E., 1976, Single major polypeptide of a calicivirus Characterization by Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and stabilization of virions by cross-linking with dimethyl suberimidate, J. Virol. 19 925.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Schaffer, F. L., Ehresmann, D. W., Fretz, M. K., and Soergel, M. E., 1979, A protein, VPg, covalently linked to 36 S calicivirus RNA, submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  89. Scott, F. W., 1977, Evaluation of a feline viral rhinotracheitis-feline calicivirus disease vaccine, Am. J. Vet. Res. 38 229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Shatkin, A. J., 1976, Capping of eucaryotic MRNAS, Cell 9 645.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Siegel, A., Hari, V., Montgomery, I., and Kolacz, K., 1976, A messenger RNA for capsid protein isolated from tobacco mosaic virus infected tissue, Virology 73 363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Smith, A. W., and Akers, T. G., 1976, Vesicular exanthema of swine, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 169 700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Smith, A. W., and Latham, A. B., 1978, Prevalence of vesicular exanthema of swine antibodies among feral mammals associated with the Southern California coastal zones, Am. J. Vet. Res. 39 291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Smith, A. W., and Skilling, D. E., 1977, Scanning electron microscopy of calicivirus infected monkey kidney (Vero) cells, Microbios Lett. 4 17.Google Scholar
  95. Smith, A. W., Akers, T. G., Madin, S. H., and Vedros, N. A., 1973, San Miguel sea lion virus isolation, preliminary characterization and relationship to vesicular exanthema of swine virus, Nature (London) 244 108.Google Scholar
  96. Smith, A. W., Prato, C. M., Gilmartin, W. G., Brown, R. J., and Keyes, M. C., 1974, A preliminary report on potentially pathogenic microbiological agents recently isolated from pinnipeds, J. Wildl. Dis. 10 54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Smith, A. W., Akers, T. G., Prato, C. M., and Bray, H., 1976, Prevalence and distribution of four serotypes of SMSV serum neutralizing antibodies in wild animal populations,J. Wildl. Dis. 12 326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Smith, A. W., Madin, S. H., Vedros, N. A., and Bankowski, R. A., 1977, Host range comparisons of five serotypes of caliciviruses, Am. J. Vet. Res. 38 101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Smith, A. W., Prato, C. M., and Skilling, D. E., 1977b, Characterization of two new serotypes of San Miguel sea lion virus, Intervirology 8 30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Smith, A. W., Skilling, D. E., and Ritchie, A. E., 1978a, Immuno-electron microscopic comparisons of caliciviruses, Am. J. Vet. Res. 39 1531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Smith, A. W., Prato, C., and Skilling, D. E., 1978b, Caliciviruses infecting monkeys and possibly man, Am. J. Vet. Res. 39 287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Soergel, M. E., Smith, A. W., and Schaffer, F. L., 1975, Biophysical comparisons of calicivirus serotypes isolated from pinnipeds, Intervirology 5 239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Soergel, M. E., Akers, T. G., Schaffer, F. L., and Noma, A. T., 1976, Amino acid com position of three immunological types of a calicivirus, San Miguel sea lion virus, Virology 72 527.Google Scholar
  104. Soergel, M. E., Schaffer, F. L., Sawyer, J. C., and Prato, C. M., 1978, Assay of antibodies to caliciviruses by radioimmune precipitation using staphylococcal protein A as IgG adsorbent, Arch. Virol. 57 271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Strauss, J. H., and Strauss, E. G., 1977, Togaviruses, in The Molecular Biology of Animal Viruses ,Vol. 1 (D. P. Nayak, ed.), pp. 111–166, Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  106. Studdert, M. J., 1978, Caliciviruses. Arch. Virol. 58 157.Google Scholar
  107. Studdert, M. J., and O’Shea, J. D., 1975, Ultrastructural studies of the development of feline calicivirus in a feline embryo cell line, Arch. Virol. 48 317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Studdert, M. J., Martin, M. C., and Peterson, J. E., 1970, Viral diseases of the respiratory tract of cats Isolation and properties of viruses tentatively classified as picor-naviruses, Am. J. Vet. Res. 31 1723.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Thornhill, T. S., Wyatt, R. G., Kalica, A. R., Dolin, R., Chanock, R. M., and Kapikian, A. Z., 1977, Detection by immune electron microscopy of 26-to 27-nm viruslike particles associated with two family outbreaks of gastroenteritis, J. Infect. Dis. 135 20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Tikchonenko, T. I., 1975, Structure of viral nucleic acis in situ ,in Comprehensive Virology ,Vol. 5 (H. Fraenkel-Conrat and R. R. Wagner, eds.), pp. 1–117, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  111. Walen, K. H., 1963, Demonstration of inapparent heterogeneity in a population of an animal virus by single-burst analyses, Virology 20 230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Walen, K. H., Madin, S. H., and Hackett, A. J., 1966, In vivo and in vitro studies of plaque type mutants of an RNA virus, Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 18 316.Google Scholar
  113. Wardley, R. C., 1976, Feline calicivirus carrier state A study of the host/virus relationship, Arch. Virol. 52 243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Wardley, R. C., and Povey, R. C., 1977a, The clinical disease and patterns of excretion associated with three different strains of feline caliciviruses, Res. Vet. Sci. 23 7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Wardley, R. C., and Povey, R. C., 1977b, The pathology and sites of persistence associated with three different strains of feline calicivirus, Res. Vet. Sci. 23 15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Wawrzkiewicz, J., Smale, C. J., and Brown, F., 1968, Biochemical and biophysical characteristics of vesicular exanthema virus and the viral ribonucleic acid, Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 25 337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Wooley, R. E., Blue, J. L., and Milek, M. 1976, Enhancement effect of feline herpesvirus and feline calicivirus infections in Crandell feline kidney cells, Bull. Ga. Acad. Sci. 34 171.Google Scholar
  118. Zee, Y. C., and Hackett, A. J., 1967, The influence of cations on the thermal inactivation of vesicular exanthema of swine virus, Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 20 473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Zee, Y. C., Hackett, A. J., and Madin, S. H., 1967, A study of the cellular pathogenesis of vesicular exanthema of swine virus in pig kidney cells, J. Infect. Dis. 117 229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Zee, Y. C., Hackett, A. J., and Madin, S. H., 1968a, Electron microscopic studies onGoogle Scholar
  121. vesicular exanthema of swine virus Intracytoplasmic viral crystal formation in cultured pig kidney cells, Am. J. Vet. Res. 29 1025.Google Scholar
  122. Zee, Y. C., Hackett, A. J., and Talens, L. T., 1968b, Electron microscopic studies on the vesicular exanthema of swine virus. II. Morphogenesis of VESV Type H54 in pig kidney cells, Virology 34 596.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Zwillenberg, L. O., and Bürki, F., 1966, On the capsid structure of some small feline and bovine RNA viruses, Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 19 373.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frederick L. Schaffer
    • 1
  1. 1.Naval Bioscience Laboratory, School of Public HealthUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations