Advertisement

Portrait of a Female on Television: Some Possible Effects on Children

  • Norma D. Feshbach
  • Arline S. Dillman
  • Tricia S. Jordan
Part of the Women in Context: Development and Stresses book series (WICO, volume 2)

Abstract

This chapter is primarily concerned with how females, adult and child, are portrayed on television and the effects of this portrayal on children. How are females characterized on television? Is the portrayal realistic and multidimensional or stereotypic and unidimensional? Are the effects of this portrayal on the perception of females short-range or pervasive? More importantly, does television influence sex-role development in children, and how is this influence mediated? What can parents, educators, other professionals, and even children themselves do to help mitigate the possible effects of such stereotypes?

Keywords

Television Program Female Character Observational Learning Prime Time Soap Opera 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aronoff, C. E. Study of sex roles and aging on TV. Unpublished, reported in the Journal of Communication, 1974, 2, 127.Google Scholar
  2. Ball, S., and Bogatz, G. A. Reading with television: An evaluation of the Electric Company. Princeton, N.J.: Educational Testing Service, 1972.Google Scholar
  3. Bandura, A. Social learning theory of identificatory processes. In D. A. Goslin (Ed.), Handbook of socialization theory and research. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1969.Google Scholar
  4. Barcus, F. E. Saturday children’s television. Newtonville, Mass.: Action for Children’s Television, 1971.Google Scholar
  5. Beuf, S. Doctor, lawyer, household drudge. Journal of Communication, 1974, 24, 142–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bogatz, G. A., and Ball, S. The second year of “Sesame Street”: A continuing evaluation. Princeton, N.J.: Educational Testing Service, 1971.Google Scholar
  7. Busby, L. J. Defining the sex-role standard in network children’s programs. Journalism Quarterly, 51, 4, 1974, 690–696. (a)Google Scholar
  8. Busby, L. J. Sex roles as presented in commercial network TV programs directed toward children: Rationale and analysis. Doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan, 1974. (University Microfilms No. 74–25166). (b)Google Scholar
  9. Cantor, M. Comparison of tasks and roles of men and women in commercials aired by WRC-TV during Composet week. In Women in the wasteland fight back. Brief filed with the FCC in 1972 by National Capital Area Chapter of National Organization for Women.Google Scholar
  10. Cantor, M. G. Children’s television: Sex role portrayals and employment discrimination. In The federal role in funding children’s television programming,Vol. 2. Commissioned papers, Bloomington, Indiana, 1975. (ERIC-Document Reproduction Service No. 114 088.)Google Scholar
  11. Cantor, M. G. Women and public broadcasting. Journal of Communication, 1977, 27 (1), 14–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cathey-Calvert, C. Sexism on Sesame Street: Outdated concepts in a “progressive program.” Pittsburgh: KNOW, Inc., 1973.Google Scholar
  13. Cheles-Miller, P. Reactions to marital roles in commercials. Journal of Advertising Research, 1975, 15 (4), 45–49.Google Scholar
  14. Children’s Television Workshop. Summary of script and program review of “Sesame Street” by Chicano Study Center, UCLA, 1974. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. 122 825.)Google Scholar
  15. Chulay, C., and Francis, S. The image of the female child on Saturday morning TV commercials. Paper presented at the International Communication Association New Orleans, April 1974. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. 095–603.)Google Scholar
  16. Collins, W. A. Learning of media content: A developmental study. Child Development, 1970, 41, 1122–1142.Google Scholar
  17. Comstock, G. The evidence so far. Journal of Communication, 1975, 25 (4), 25–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cone, F. M. Memo to tomorrow’s Madison Avenue. Saturday Review, 1969, Oct. 11, 71–74.Google Scholar
  19. Courtney, A., and Whipple, T. Women in TV commercials. Journal of Communication, 1974, 24, 110–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Culley, J. A., and Bennett, R. Selling women, selling blacks. Journal of Communication, 1976, 26, 160–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dohrmann, R. Effects of TV on children and adolescents: A symposium: Gender profile of children’s educational TV. Journal of Communication, 1975, 25 (4), 50–65.Google Scholar
  22. Dominick, J. R., and Rauch, G. E. The image of women in network TV commercials. Journal of Broadcasting, 1972, 16, 259–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Donagher, P. E., Poulos, R. W., Liebert, R. M., and Davidson, E. S. Race, sex and social example: An analysis of character portrayals on interracial television entertainment. Psychological Reports, 1975, 37 (2), 1023–1034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Doolittle, J., and Pepper, R. Children’s TV ad content. Journal of Broadcasting, 1975, 19, 131–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Downing, M. Heroine of the daytime serial. Journal of Communication, 1974, 24, 130–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Forsher, T., Jeffries, G., and Winston, M. P. Los Angeles television coverage of women’s concerns. Santa Monica, Calif.: The Rand Corporation, 1974.Google Scholar
  27. Frueh, T., and McGhee, P. Traditional sex-role development and amount of time spent watching television. Developmental Psychology, 1975, 11, 109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gerbner, G. Violence in TV drama: Trends and symbolic functions. In G. A. Comstock and E. A. Rubinstein (Eds.), TV and social behavior: Vol. 1. Media content and control. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1972.Google Scholar
  29. Head, S. W. Content analysis of TV dramatic programs. Film, Radio and Television Quarterly, 1954, 9, 175–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kagan, J. Acquisition and significance of sex typing and sex role identity. In M. L. Hoffman and L. W. Hoffman (Eds.), Recent child development research. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1964.Google Scholar
  31. Katzman, N. Television soap operas: What’s been going on anyway. Public Opinion Quarterly, 1972, 36, 200–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Leifer, A. D., Collins, W. A., Gross, D. M., Taylor, P. H., Andrews, L., and Blackmer, B. R. Developmental aspects of variables relevant to observational learning. Child Development, 1971, 42, 1509–1516.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Liebert, R. M. Television and social learning: Some relationships between viewing violence and behaving aggressively (overview). In J. P. Murray, G. A. Comstock, and E. A. Rubinstein (Eds.), Television and social behavior: Vol. 2. Television and social learning. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1972.Google Scholar
  34. Liebert, R. M., and Poulos, R. W. Television and personality development: The socializing effects of an entertainment medium. In A. Davids (Ed.), Child personality and psychopathology: Current topics. New York: Wiley, 1975.Google Scholar
  35. Liebert, R. M., and Schwartzberg, N. S. Effects of mass media. Annual Review of Psychology, 1977, 28, 141–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Long, M., and Simon, R. J. The roles and statuses of women on children and family TV programs. Journalism Quarterly, 1974, 51 (1), 107–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lyle, J., and Hoffman, H. R. Children’s use of television and other media. In E. A. Rubinstein, G. A. Comstock, and J. P. Murray (Eds.), Television and social behavior: Vol. 4. Television in day-to-day life: Patterns of use. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1972. (a)Google Scholar
  38. Lyle, J., and Hoffman, H. R. Explorations in patterns of television viewing by preschool age children. In E. A. Rubinstein, G. A. Comstock, and J. P. Murray (Eds.), Television and social behavior: Vol. 4. Television in day-to-day life: Patterns of use. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1972. (b)Google Scholar
  39. Manes, A. L., and Melnyk, P. Televised models of female achievement. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 1974, 4 (4), 365–374.Google Scholar
  40. McArthur, L. Z., and Resko, B. G. The portrayal of men and women in American TV commercials. Journal of Social Psychology, 1975, 97 (2), 209–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. McNeil, J. C. Feminism, femininity and the television series: A content analysis. Journal of Broadcasting, 1975, 3, 259–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Miles, B. Channeling children: Sex stereotyping in prime time. Princeton, N.J.: Women on Words and Images, 1975.Google Scholar
  43. Miller, M. M., and Reeves, B. Dramatic TV content and children’s sex role stereotypes. Journal of Broadcasting, 1976, 20 (1), 35–50.Google Scholar
  44. Mischel, W. A social learning view of sex differences. In E. Maccoby (Ed.), The development of sex differences. Palo Alto, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1966.Google Scholar
  45. O’Kelly, C. G., and Bloomquist, L. E. Women and blacks on TV. Journal of Communication, 1976, 26 (4), 179–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Pingree, S. A developmental study of the attitudinal effects of nonsexist TV commercials under varied conditions of perceived reality. Doctoral dissertation, Stanford University, 1975. (University Microfilms No. 76–5785.)Google Scholar
  47. Schuetz, S., and Sprafkin, J. N. Broadcast advertising and children. Hearings before Subcommittee on Communications of House Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1976.Google Scholar
  48. Screen Actors Guild. The relative roles of men and women in television commercials, 1974. Available from Screen Actors Guild, 551 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10017.Google Scholar
  49. Seggar, J. F. Imagery of women in television drama. Journal of Broadcasting, 1975, 19 (3), 273–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sheikh, A. A., Prasad, V. K., and Rao, T. R. Children’s TV commercials: A review of research. Journal of Communication, 1974, 24 (Autumn), 126–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Smyth, D. W. Reality as presented by TV. Public Opinion Quarterly, 1954, 143–156. Stein, A. H., and Friedrich, L. K. Impact of TV on children and youth. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  52. Sternglanz, S., and Serbin, I. K. Sex role stereotyping on children’s television programs. Developmental Psychology, 1974, 10, 710–715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Streicher, H. W. The girls in the cartoons. Journal of Communication, 1974, 24 (2), 125–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Streicher, L. H., and Bonney, N. L. Children talk about television. Journal of Communication, 1974, 24 (Summer), 54–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Tedesco, N. Patterns in prime time. Journal of Communication, 1974, 24, 119–124. Television and social behavior, 5 vols. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1972.Google Scholar
  56. Turow, J. Advising and ordering: Daytime, prime-time. Journal of Communication, 1974, 24, 138–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Verna, M. E. The female image in children’s TV commercials. Journal of Broadcasting, 1975, 19 (3), 310–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Women in the wasteland fight back. Bnef filed with the FCC in 1972 by National Capital Area Chapter of National Organization for Women.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Norma D. Feshbach
    • 1
  • Arline S. Dillman
    • 2
  • Tricia S. Jordan
    • 2
  1. 1.Departments of Education and PsychologyUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Graduate School of EducationUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations