Where Are the Women Geniuses? Up the Down Escalator

  • Marilyn F. Graham
  • Beverly Birns
Part of the Women in Context: Development and Stresses book series (WICO, volume 2)


With this announcement, Dr. Rosalyn S. Yalow became the second woman to win a Nobel prize in medicine and the sixth woman ever to win in any science category. Her radical breakthrough, expanding the boundaries of medical research and diagnosis, has helped doctors diagnose many patient conditions that previously escaped detection. This accomplishment, achieved in collaboration with the late Dr. Solomon Berson, “was accomplished by a spectacular combination of immunology, isotope research, mathematics and physics” (Nobel Citation, 1977).


Nobel Prize Biographical Data Intellectual Achievement Intellectual Potential Mathematical Talent 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Astin, H. S. Sex differences in mathematical and scientific precocity. In J. C. Stanley, D. P. Keating, and L. H. Fox (Eds.), Mathematical talent: Discovery, description and development. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1974. Pp. 78–86.Google Scholar
  2. Astin, H. S., and Bayer, A. E. Sex discrimination in academe. Educational Record, 1972, 52 (2), 101–119.Google Scholar
  3. Baird, L. L. The graduate: A report on the characteristics and plans of college seniors. Princeton, N.J.: Educational Testing Service, 1973.Google Scholar
  4. Bem, S. L., and Bem, D. J. Case study of a non-conscious ideology: Training the woman to know her place. In D. J. Bem (Ed.), Beliefs, attitudes and human affairs. Belmont, Calif.: Brooks/Cole, 1970.Google Scholar
  5. Birns, B. The emergence of sex differences in the early years. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 1976, 22 (3), 229–254.Google Scholar
  6. Bims, B., Golden, M., Moss, A., and Rossman, E. Social class, sex and the socialization of cognitive style. Paper presented at Society for Research in Child Development Conference, 1973.Google Scholar
  7. Carnegie Commission on Higher Education. Opportunities for women in higher education. New York. McGraw-Hill, 1973.Google Scholar
  8. Collard, E. D. Achievement motive in the four-year-old child and its relationship to achievement expectancies of the mother. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan, 1964.Google Scholar
  9. Condry, J., and Condry S. Sex differences: A study of the eye of the beholder. Child Development, 1976, 47, 812–819.Google Scholar
  10. Crandall, V. C. Sex differences in expectancy of intellectual and academic reinforcement. In C. P. Smith (Ed.), Achievement related motives in children. New York: Russell Sage, 1969.Google Scholar
  11. Crandall, V. J., Katkowsky, W., and Preston, A. Motivational and ability determinants of young children’s intellectual achievement behaviors. Child Development, 1962, 33, 643–661.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dash, J. A life of one’s own: Three gifted women and the men they married. New York: Harper and Row, 1973.Google Scholar
  13. Deaux K., and Emswiller, T. Explanations of successful performance on sex-linked tasks: What’s skill for the male is luck for the female. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1974, 29, 80–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ernest, J. Mathematics and sex. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Mathematics Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, 1976.Google Scholar
  15. Feldman, S. Escape from a doll’s house. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1973.Google Scholar
  16. Fennema, E. Influence of selected cognitive, affective and educational variables on sex-related differences in mathematics studying and learning. Grant #P-76–0274, Washington, D.C. National Institute of Education, October 1976.Google Scholar
  17. Fennema, E., and Sherman, J. Sex-related differences in mathematics learning: Myths, realities and related factors. Paper presented at the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Boston, 1976.Google Scholar
  18. Fidell, L. S. Empirical verification of sex descrimination in hiring practices in psychology. American Psychologist, 1970, 25 (12), 1094–1098.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fox, L. H. Facilitating the development of mathematical talent in young women. Doctoral dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, 1974.Google Scholar
  20. Frazier, N., and Sadker, M. Sexism in school and society. New York: Harper and Row, 1973.Google Scholar
  21. Frieze, I. H. Studies of information processing and the attributional process in achievement-related contexts. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California at Los Angeles, 1973.Google Scholar
  22. Goldberg, P. H. Are women prejudiced against women? Transaction, 1968, 5, 28–30.Google Scholar
  23. Graham M. F. Women in Science: Socialization of failure. Paper presented at Society for Research in Child Development conference, 1977.Google Scholar
  24. Hennig, M., and Jardin, A. The managerial woman. New York: Doubleday, 1976.Google Scholar
  25. Janeway, E. Man’s world, woman’s place. New York: Morrow, 1971.Google Scholar
  26. Jay, W. T., and Schminke, C. W. Sex-bias in elementary school mathematics texts. The Arithmetic Teacher, 1975, 242–246.Google Scholar
  27. Leutgert, M. J., Armstrong, A. H., Curry, J. M., Creaser, J. W., Ashbough, J. A., and LaPlante, M. J. Today’s feminist: Her place is the home! Paper presented at the American Psychological Association, Chicago, 1975.Google Scholar
  28. Maccoby, E. E., and Jacklin, C. N. The psychology of sex differences. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  29. Moss, H. A. Early sex differences in mother-infant interactions. In R. C. Friedman, R. M. Richard, and R. L. Van De Wiele (Eds.), Sex differences in behavior. New York: wiley, 1974.Google Scholar
  30. Mozans, H. J. Women in science. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  31. National Science Foundation. Women and minorities in science and engineering#77–304. Washington, D.C. 1977.Google Scholar
  32. Newson, J., and Newson, E. Four years old in an urban community Chicago: Aldine, 1968.Google Scholar
  33. O’Leary, K. D., Kass, R., and Drabman, R. The effects of loud and soft reprimands on behavior of disruptive students. Exceptional Children, 1970, 37, 145–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Parke, R. D., O’Leary, S. E., and West, S. Mother-father-newborn interaction: Some findings, some observations, some unresolved issues. In K. F. Riegal and J. Mercham (Eds.), The developing individual in a changing world—Social and environmental issues, Vol. 2. The Hague: Mouton, 1974.Google Scholar
  35. Pheterson, G. I., Kiesler, S. B., and Goldberg, P. A. Evaluation of the performance of women as a function of their sex, achievement and personal history. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1971, 19, 114–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rheingold, H. L., and Cook, K. V. The contents of boys’ and girls’ rooms as an index of parents’ behavior. Child Development, 1975, 46 (2), 459–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rothbart, M. K., and Rothbart, M. Birth-order, sex of child and maternal help giving. Sex Roles, 1976, 2 (1), 39–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Rotter, G. S. Teacher evaluation of pupils. Paper presented at the Eastern Psychological Association meeting, Boston, 1967.Google Scholar
  39. Rubin, J. Z., Pomeranzo, F. J. and Luria, Z. The eye of the beholder: Parents’ views on sex of newborns. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 1974, 44(4), 512–519.Google Scholar
  40. Rubin-Rabson, G. How high are the odds against women? American Psychologist, 1974, 29, 916–917.Google Scholar
  41. Sayre, A. Rosalind Franklin and DNA. New York: Norton, 1975.Google Scholar
  42. Sears, P., and Feldman, D. H. Teachers interactions with boys and girls. National Elementary Principal, 1966, 46 (2), 30–35.Google Scholar
  43. Sells, L. H. High school mathematics as the critical filter in the job market in developing opportunities for minorities in graduate education. Proceedings of Conference on Minority Graduate Education at University of California, Berkeley, 1973.Google Scholar
  44. Serbin, L. A., O’Leary, K. D., Kent, R. N., and Tonick, I. J. A comparison of teacher response to the pre-academic and problem behavior of boys and girls. Child Development, 1973, 44, 796–804.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sherman, J. Effects of biological factors on sex-related differences in mathematical achievement. Contract #400–76-D113. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Education, 1976.Google Scholar
  46. Stein, A. H., and Bailey, M. M. The socialization of achievement orientation in females. Psychological Bulletin, 1973, 86, 345–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sternglanz, S. H., and Serbin, L. A. Sex role stereotyping in children’s television programs. Developmental Psychology, 1974, 10 (5), 710–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Terman, L. M., and Oden, M. H. The gifted group at mid-life: Thirty-five years’ follow-up of the superior child: Vol. 5. Genetic studies of genius. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1959.Google Scholar
  49. Torrance, E. P. Education and the creative potential. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1963.Google Scholar
  50. Trecker, J. L. Women in U.S. history high school textbooks. Social Education, 1971, 35 (3), 249–261.Google Scholar
  51. Vaughter, R. M. Review essay: Psychology. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 1976, 2 (1), 120–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Watson, J. D. The double helix. New York: Atheneum, 1968.Google Scholar
  53. Women on Words and Images. Dick and Jane as victims. Princeton, N.J., 1975.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marilyn F. Graham
    • 1
  • Beverly Birns
    • 1
  1. 1.Women’s Studies ProgramState University of New YorkStony BrookUSA

Personalised recommendations