Advertisement

Chemical Lasers

  • Terrill A. Cool
Part of the Physical Chemistry of Fast Reactions book series (PCFR, volume 2)

Abstract

Chemical lasers have undergone a period of extensive development in the past few years which has led to laser sources of unique capabilities. Chemical lasers are capable of high power and high energy operation that is without rival at near infrared wavelengths below 10 μm. Continuous wave HF or DF chemical lasers capable of operation at power levels above 100 kW can now be constructed. Such devices operate at high chemical efficiencies and require little, if any, nonchemical energy for their operation. Pulsed HF chemical lasers with energies of several kJ and 100 GW peak powers have also been built.(1)

Keywords

Vibrational Level Population Inversion Radiative Lifetime Photon Yield Chemical Laser 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References and Notes

  1. 1.
    R. A. Gerber, E. L. Patterson, L. S. Blair, and N. R. Greiner, Appi. Phys. Lett., 25, 281 (1974).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    R. R. Stephens and T. A. Cool, Rev. Sci. lustrum., 42, 1489 (1971).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. J. Hinchen, J. Appi. Phys., 45, 1818 (1974).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    J. A. Glaze and G. J. Lindford, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 44, 600 (1973).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    K. L. Kompa, J. H. Parker, and G. C. Pimentel, J. Chem. Phys., 49, 4257 (1968).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    C. B. Moore, IEEE J. Quantum Electron., QE-4, 52, (1968).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    T. V. Jacobson and G. H. Kimbell, J. Appi. Phys., 41, 5210 (1970).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. C. Lin and W. H. Green, J. Chem. Phys., 53, 3383 (1970).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    O. R. Wood and T. Y. Chang, Appi. Phys. Lett., 20, 77 (1972).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    I. Burak, Y. Noter, A. M. Ronn, and A. Szòke, Chem. Phys. Lett., 13, 322 (1972).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    S. N. Suchard and J. R. Airey, in Handbook of Chemical Lasers (R. W. F. Gross and J. F. Bott, ), John Wiley and Sons, New York (1976), Chap. 6.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    S. K. Searles and G. A. Hart, Appi. Phys. Lett., 27, 243 (1975).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    J. J. Ewing and C. A. Brau, Appi. Phys. Lett., 27, 350 (1975).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    C. A. Brau and J. J. Ewing, J. Chem. Phys., 63, 4640 (1975).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    C. A. Brau and J. J. Ewing, Appi. Phys. Lett., 27, 435 (1975).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    E. R. Ault, R. S. Bradford, Jr., and M. L. Baumik, Appi. Phys. Lett., 27, 413 (1975).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. L. Baumik, R. S. Bradford, Jr., and E. R. Ault, Appi. Phys. Lett., 28, 23 (1976).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    J. M. Hoffman, A. K. Hays, and G. C. Tisone, Appi. Phys. Lett., 28, 538 (1976).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    R. Burnham, D. Harris, and N. Djeu, Appi. Phys. Lett., 28, 86 (1976).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    D. G. Sutton, S. N. Suchard, O. L. Gibb, and C. P. Wang, Appi. Phys. Lett., 28, 522 (1976).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    J. R. Murray and H. T. Powell, Appi. Phys. Lett., 29, 252 (1976).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    R. Burnham and N. Djeu, Appi. Phys. Lett., 29, 707 (1976).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    J. G. Eden and S. K. Searles, Appi. Phys. Lett., 29, 350 (1976).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ch. Ottinger and R. N. Zare, Chem. Phys. Lett., 5, 243 (1970).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    C. D. Jonah and R. N. Zare, Chem. Phys. Lett., 9, 65 (1971).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    C. D. Jonah, R. N. Zare, and Ch. Ottinger, J. Chem. Phys., 56, 263 (1972).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    J. L. Gole and R. N. Zare, J. Chem. Phys., 57, 5331 (1972).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    R. H. Obernauf, C. J. Hsu, and H. B. Palmer, Chem. Phys. Lett., 17, 45 (1972).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    R. H. Obernauf, C. J. Hsu, and H. B. Palmer, J. Chem. Phys., 58, 4693 (1973); J. Chem. Phys., 57, 5607 (1972).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    M. Menzinger and D. J. Wren, Chem. Phys. Lett., 18, 431 (1973).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    D. J. Wren and M. Menzinger, Chem. Phys. Lett., 20, 471 (1973).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    G. A. Capelle, R. S. Bradford, and H. P. Broida, Chem. Phys. Lett., 31, 418 (1973).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    C. R. Jones and H. P. Broida, J. Chem. Phys., 59, 6677 (1973).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    R. C. Oldenborg, J. L. Gole, and R. N. Zare, J. Chem. Phys., 60, 4032 (1974).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    R. W. Field, C. R. Jones, and H. P. Broida, J. Chem. Phys., 60, 4377 (1974); J. Chem. Phys., 62, 2012 (1975).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    A. Schultz and R. N. Zare, J. Chem. Phys., 60, 5120 (1974).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    R. W. Field, J. Chem. Phys., 60, 2400 (1974).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    P. J. Dagdigian, H. W. Cruse, and R. N. Zare, J. Chem. Phys., 60, 230 (1974).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    D. J. Eckstrom, S. A. Edelstein, and S. W. Benson, J. Chem. Phys., 60, 2930 (1974).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    G. Black, M. Luria, D. J. Eckstrom, S. A. Edelstein, and S. W. Benson, /. Chem. Phys., 60, 3709 (1974).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    G. Hager, L. E. Wilson, and S. G. Hadley, Chem. Phys. Lett., 27, 439 (1974).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    C. J. Hsu, W. D. Krugh, and H. B. Palmer, J. Chem. Phys., 60, 5118 (1974).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    C. R. Jones and H. P. Broida, J. Chem. Phys., 60, 4369 (1974).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    D. J. Wren and M. Menzinger, Chem. Phys. Lett., 27, 572 (1974).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    S. A. Edelstein, D. J. Eckstrom, B. E. Perry, and S. W. Benson, J. Chem. Phys., 61, 4932 (1974).Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    G. A. Capelle, C. R. Jones, J. Zorskie, and H. P. Broida, J. Chem. Phys., 61, 4777 (1974).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    M. Menzinger, Can. J. Chem., 52, 1688 (1974).Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    P. J. Dagdigian, H. W. Cruse, and R. N. Zare, J. Chem. Phys., 62, 1824 (1975).Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    M. Menzinger, Chem. Phys., 5, 350 (1974).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    J. B. West and H. P. Broida, J. Chem. Phys., 62, 2566 (1975).Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    R. S. Bradford, Jr., C. R. Jones, L. A. Southall, and H. P. Broida, Chem. Phys., 62, 2060 (1975).Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    G. A. Capelle, H. P. Broida, and R. W. Field, J. Chem. Phys., 62, 3131 (1975).Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    D. Husain and J. R. Wiesenfeld, Chem. Phys., 60, 4377 (1974).Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    S. Rosenwaks, R. E. Steele, and H. P. Broida, J. Chem. Phys., 63, 1963 (1975); Chem. Phys. Lett., 38, 121 (1976).Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    D. J. Eckstrom, S. A. Edelstein, D. L. Huestis, B. E. Perry, and S. W. Benson, J. Chem. Phys., 63, 3828 (1975).Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    C. J. Hsu, W. D. Krugh, H. B. Palmer, R. H. Obernauf, and C. F. Aten, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 53, 273 (1974).Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    R. W. Field, G. A. Capelle, and C. R. Jones, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 54, 156 (1975).Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    C. R. Dickson and R. N. Zare, Chem. Phys., 1, 361 (1975).Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    G. Hager, R. Harris, and S. G. Hadley, J. Chem. Phys., 63, 2810 (1975).Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    G. A. Capelle and J. M. Brom, Jr., J. Chem. Phys., 63, 5168 (1974).Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    A. Fontijn, W. Felder, and J. J. Houghton, Fifteenth Symposium (International) on Combustion, Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh (1975), p. 951.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    H. B. Palmer, W. D. Krugh, and C. J. Hsu, Fifteenth Symposium (International) on Combustion, Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh (1975), p. 951.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    W. Felder and A. Fontijn, Chem. Phys. Lett., 34, 398 (1975).Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    R. C. Oldenborg, C. R. Dickson, and R. N. Zare, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 58, 283 (1975).Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    M. Luria, D. J. Eckstrom, and S. W. Benson, J. Chem. Phys., 65, 1581 (1976); J. Chem. Phys., 65, 1595 (1976); J. Chem. Phys., 64, 3103 (1976).Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    M. Luria, D. J. Eckstrom, B. Perry, S. A. Edelstein, and S. W. Benson, J. Chem. Phys., 64, 2247 (1976).Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    C. L. Chalek and J. L. Gole, J. Chem. Phys., 65, 2845 (1976); J. L. Gole and C. L. Chalek, J. Chem. Phys., 65, 4384 (1976).Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    S. Rosenwaks, J. Chem. Phys., 65, 3668 (1976).Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    A. Yokozeki and M. Menzinger, Chem. Phys., 15, 427 (1976).Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    G. A. Gapelle and C. Linton, J. Chem. Phys., 65, 5361 (1976).Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    J. I. Steinfeld ed., Electronic Transition Lasers, Proceedings of the Second Summer Colloquium on Electronic Transition Lasers, Woods Hole, Mass., 1975, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass. (1976).Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    F. Engelke, R. K. Sander, and R. N. Zare, Chem. Phys., 65, 1146 (1976).Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    M. S. Dzhidzhoev, V. T. Platonenko, and R. V. Khokhlov, Sov. Phys. Usp., 13, 247 (1970).Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    N. G. Basov, V. I. Igoshin, J. I. Markin, and A. N. Oraevskii, Kvantovaya Electron. CMoscow) 1, 3 (1971).Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    D. H. Dawson and G. H. Kimbell, Adv. Electron. Electron Phys., 31, 1 (1972).Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    K. L. Kompa, Forsch. Chem. Forsch. 37, 1 (1973).Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    C. E. Wiswall, D. P. Ames, and J. T. Menne, IEEE J. Quantum Electron., QE-9, 181 (1973).Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    B. R. Bronfin, Fifteenth Symposium (International) on Combustion, Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh (1975), p. 935.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Handbook of Chemical Lasers (R. W. F. Gross and J. F. Bott, ), John Wiley and Sons, New York (1976).Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    G. C. Pimentel and K. L. Kompa, in Handbook of Chemical Lasers (R. W. F. Gross and J. F. Bott, ), John Wiley and Sons, New York (1976), Chap. 1.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    T. A. Cool, in Handbook of Chemical Lasers (R. W. F. Gross and J. F. Bott, ), John Wiley and Sons, New York (1976), Chap. 7.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    N. Cohen and J. F. Bott, in Handbook of Chemical Lasers (R. W. F. Gross and J. F. Bott, ), John Wiley and Sons, New York (1976), Chap. 2.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    R. C. Millikan, Chem. Phys., 38, 2855 (1963).Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    M. G. Ferguson and A. W. Reed, Trans. Faraday Soc., 61, 1559 (1965).Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    I. W. M. Smith and C. Wittig, Trans. Faraday Soc., 69, 939 (1973).Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    H. T. Powell, J. Chem. Phys., 59, 4937 (1973).Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    J. C. Stephenson and E. R. Mosburg, Jr., J. Chem. Phys., 60, 3562 (1974).Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    D. I. Rosen, R. N. Sileo, and T. A. Cool, IEEE J. Quantum Electron., QE-9, 163 (1973).Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    R. W. F. Gross and D. J. Spencer, in Handbook of Chemical Lasers (R. W. F. Gross and J. F. Bott, ), John Wiley and Sons, New York (1976), Chap. 4; and G. Grohs and G. Emanuel, same book, Chap. 5.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    B. R. Brofin and W. Q. Jeffers, in Handbook of Chemical Lasers (R. W. F. Gross and J. F. Bott, ), John Wiley and Sons, New York (1976), Chap. 11.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    G. Grohs and G. Emanuel, in Handbook of Chemical Lasers (R. W. F. Gross and J. F. Bott, ), John Wiley and Sons, New York (1976), Chap. 5.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    G. Emanuel, in Handbook of Chemical Lasers (R. W. F. Gross and J. F. Bott, ), John Wiley and Sons, New York (1976), Chap. 8.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    H. V. Lilenfeld and W. Q. Jeffers, J. Appl. Phys., 47, 2520 (1976).Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    C. Wittig, J. C. Hassler, and P. D. Coleman, Appl. Phys. Lett., 16, 117 (1970); Nature, 226, 845 (1970).Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    R. D. Suart, P. H. Dawson, and G. H. Kimbell, Appl. Phys., 43, 1022 (1972).Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    R. D. Suart, S. J. Arnold, and G. H. Kimbell, Chem. Phys. Lett., 7, 337 (1970).Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    K. D. Foster, Chem. Phys., 57, 2451 (1972).Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    C. J. Ultee and P. A. Bonczyk, IEEE J. Quantum Electron., QE-10, 105 (1974).Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    W. Q. Jeffers and C. E. Wiswall, Appi. Phys. Lett., 23, 626 (1973).Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    L. R. Boedeker, J. A. Shirley, and B. R. Bronfin, Appi. Phys. L?tt., 21, 247 (1972).Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    D. W. Howgate and T. A. Barr, Jr., J. Chem. Phys., 59, 2815 (1973).Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    S. H. Bauer and N. A. Nielson, Jr., unpublished; N. A. Nielsor., Jr., Ph.D. Thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., May, 1975.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    W. Q. Jeffers, H. Y. Ageno, and C. E. Wiswall, /. Appi. Phys., 47, 2509 (1976).Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    J. T. Yardley, Appi. Optics, 10, 1760 (1971).Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    T. A. Cool and R. R. Stephens, J. Chem. Phys., 51, 5175 (1969).Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    J. A. Shirley, R. N. Sileo, R. R. Stephens, and T. A. Cool, Purely Chemical Laser Operation in the HF, DF, HF-COa, and DF-COa Systems, presented at the AIAA Ninth Aerospace Sciences Meeting, New York, paper 71-27, January, 1971.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    R. W. F. Gross, J. Chem. Phys., 50, 1889 (1969).Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    H. S. Pillof, S. K. Searles, and N. Djeu, Appi. Phys. Lett., 19, 9 (1971).Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    K. D. Foster and G. H. Kimbell, J. Chem. Phys., 53, 2539 (1970).Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    M. J. Linevsky and R. A. Carabetta, Appi. Phys. Lett., 22, 288 (1973).Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    K. D. Foster, G. H. Kimbell, and D. R. Snelling, IEEE J. Quantum Electron., QE-11, 253 (1975).Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    J. R. Airey and S. F. McKay, Appi. Phys. Lett., 15, 401 (1969).Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    D. J. Spencer, T. A. Jacobs, H. Mirels, and R. W. F. Gross, Int. J. Chem. Kinet., 1, 493 (1969).Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    T. A. Cool, R. R. Stephens, and T. J. Falk, Int. J. Chem. Kinet., 1, 495 (1969).Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    J. V. V. Kasper and G. C. Pimentel, Phys. Rev. Lett., 14, 352 (1965).Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    H. L. Chen, J. C. Stephenson, and C. B. Moore, Chem. Phys. Lett., 2, 593 (1968).Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    S. W. Zelazny, J. A. Blauer, L. Wood, L. H. Sentman, and W. C. Solomon, Appi. Opt., 15, 1164 (1976); also W. C. Solomon, R. J. Driscoll, T. E. Furner, and S. W. Zelazny, “Performance of DF-C02 Transfer Lasers,” Paper presented at SPIE Technical Symposium, Reston, Virginia March 22–23, 1976 (unpublished).Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    G. W. Tregay, M. G. Dreshage, L. M. Wood, S. J. Andrysiak, IEEE J. Quantum Electron., QE-11, 672 (1975).Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    The H + Cl2 reaction has produced outputs of several hundred milliwatts on 10 and 2 -1 band transitions in a transverse flow device similar to that described in ref. 2; J. C. Polanyi and J. Wanner, private communication, 1974.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Weak laser output on the 32 and 43 bands of HF and DF, respectively, is observable with the F 4- H2, D2 reaction; the CI -I- HI reaction also produces a weak output from the 3 - 2 band in HCl.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    J. J. Hinchen and R. J. Freiberg, Appi. Opt., 15, 459 (1976).Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    R. S. Eng and D. L. Spears, Appi. Phys. Lett., 27, 650 (1975).Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    T. V. Jacobson, G. H. Kimbell, and D. R. Snelling, IEEE J. Quantum Electron., QE-9, 496 (1973).Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    R. A. Lucht and T. A. Cool, J. Chem. Phys., 60, 1026 (1974).Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    R. A. Lucht, Ph.D. Thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, 1976.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    R. A. Lucht and T. A. Cool, J. Chem. Phys., 63, 3962 (1975).Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    J. C. Polanyi, J. Chem. Phys., 34, 347 (1961).Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    J. C. Polanyi, Appi. Optics, Suppl. 2 on Chemical Lasers, p. 109 (1965).Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    P. D. Pacey and J. C. Polanyi, Appi. Opt., 10, 1725 (1971).Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    K. G. Anlauf, P. J. Kuntz, D. H. Maylotte, P. D. Pacey, and J. C. Polanyi, Disc. Faraday Soc., 44, 183 (1967).Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    J. C. Polanyi and K. B. Woodall, Chem. Phys., 57, 1574 (1972).Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    N. Jonathan, C. M. Melliar-Smith, S. Okuda, D. H. Slater, and D. Timlin, Mol Phys., 22, 561 (1971).Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    R. L. Johnson, M. J. Perona, and D. W. Setser, J. Chem. Phys., 52, 6372 (1970).Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    J. H. Parker and G. C. Pimentel, J. Chem. Phys., 51, 91 (1969).Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    F. M. G. Tablas, and G. C. Pimentel, IEEEJ. Quantum Electron., QE-6, 176 (1970).Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    M. J. Molina and G. C. Pimentel, J. Chem. Phys., 56, 3988 (1972).Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    R. D. Coombe and G. C. Pimentel, J. Chem. Phys., 59, 251 (1973).Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    M. J. Molina and G. C. Pimentel, IEEEJ. Quantum Electron., QE-9, 64 (1973).Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    M. J. Berry, Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 26, 259 (1975).Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    M. J. Berry, J. Chem. Phys., 59, 6229 (1973).Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    M. J. Berry and G. C. Pimentel, J. Chem. Phys., 51, 2274 (1969); /. Chem. Phys. 53, 3453 (1970).Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    M. J. Molina and G. C. Pimentel, J. Chem. Phys., 56, 3988 (1972).Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    M. J. Berry, J. Chem. Phys., 61, 3114 (1974).Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    J. K. Hancock and W. H. Green, J. Chem. Phys., 56, 2474 (1972); J. Chem. Phys., 57, 4515 (1972).Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    J. J. Hinchen, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 233 (1973); J. Chem. Phys., 59 2224 (1973).Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    J. F. Bott, J. Chem. Phys., 57, 96 (1972).Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    R. M. Osgood, Jr., A. Javan, and P. B. Sackett, Appl. Phys. Lett., 20, 469 (1972).Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    J. C. Stephenson and C. B. Moore, J. Chem. Phys., 56, 1295 (1972).Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    C. B. Moore, Adv. Chem. Phys., 23, 41 - 83 (1973).Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    G. W. Flynn, in Chemical and Biochemical Applications of Lasers (C. B. Moore, ed.), Academic Press, New York (1974), Chap. 6.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    S. Ormonde, Revs. Mod. Phys., 47, 193 (1975).Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    P. F. Zittel and C. B. Moore, J. Chem. Phys., 59, 6636 (1973).Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    J. F. Bott and N. Cohen, J. Chem. Phys., 58, 4539 (1973).Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    J. J. Hinchen, Appl. Phys. Lett., 27, 672 (1975).Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    J. J. Hinchen and R. H. Hobbs, J. Chem. Phys., 65, 2732 (1976).Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    J. C. Polanyi and K. B. Woodall, J. Chem. Phys., 56, 1563 (1972).Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York (1967).Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    A more extensive consideration of the prospects for electronic transition chemical lasers has been presented; see L. E. Wilson, New Gas Lasers Committee Report on Electronic Transition Chemically and Electronically Excited Lasers, Technical Report AFWL-TR-73-60 (U.S. Air Force Weapons Laboratory, Kirtland AFB, New Mexico, May 1973 ).Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    W. W. Rice and R. J. Jensen, Appl. Phys. Lett., 22, 67 (1973).Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    W. W. Rice and W. H. Beattie, Chem. Phys. Lett., 19, 82 (1973).Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    W. W. Rice, IEEEJ. Quantum Electron., QE-11, 689 (1975).Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    R. J. Jensen, in Handbook of Chemical Lasers (R. W. F. Gross and J. F. Bott, ), John Wiley and Sons, New York (1976), Chap. 13.Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    J. G. DeKoker and W. W. Rice, J. Appl. Phys., 45, 2770 (1974).Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    W. W. Rice, W. H. Beattie, R. C. Oldenborg, S. E. Johnson, and P. B. Scott, Appl. Phys. Lett., 28, 444 (1976).Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    J. E. Velazco and D. W. Setser, J. Chem. Phys., 62, 1990 (1975).Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    M. F. Golde and B. A. Thrush, Chem. Phys. Lett., 29, 486 (1974).Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    D. G. Sutton and S. N. Suchard, Appl. Opt., 14, 1898 (1975).Google Scholar
  168. 167a.
    C. R. Dickson, S. M. George, and R. N. Zare, J. Chem. Phys., 67, 1524 (1977).Google Scholar
  169. 168.
    C. Chalek, D. R. Preuss, and J. L. Gole, in Electronic Transition Lasers (J. I. Steinfeld, ed.), Proceedings of the Second Summer Colloquium on Electronic Transition Lasers, Woods Hole, Mass., September 1975, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass. (1976), pp. 50–55.Google Scholar
  170. 169.
    J. L. Gole, in Electronic Transition Lasers II (L. E. Wilson, S. N. Suchard, and J. I. Steinfeld, ), Proceedings of the Third Summer Colloquium on Electronic Transition Lasers, Snowmass-in-Aspen, Colorado, Sept. 1976, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass. (1977).Google Scholar
  171. 170.
    S. N. Suchard (ed.), Spectroscopic Data, Vol. 1, Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules, Parts A and B IFI/Plenum press, New York (1975).Google Scholar
  172. 171.
    D. McLeod, Jr., and W. Weltner, Jr., J. Phys. Chem., 70, 3293 (1966).Google Scholar
  173. 172.
    L. Brewer and D. W. Green, High Tèmp. Sci., 1, 26 (1969).Google Scholar
  174. 173.
    D. J. Eckstrom, S. A. Edelstein, D. L. Huestis, B, E, Perryàrìd S. W. Benson, Study of New Chemical Lasers, Technical Report, SRI MP74-40 (Stanford Research Institute, Stanford, Calif., August 30, 1974 ).Google Scholar
  175. 174.
    C. R. Jones and H. P. Broida, Laser Focus, 10, 37 (1974).Google Scholar
  176. 175.
    W. M. Shaub and S. H. Bauer, Int. J. Chem. Kin., 7, 509 (1975).Google Scholar
  177. 176.
    R. V. Ambartzumian, N. V. Chekalin, V. S. Letokov, and E. A. Ryabov, Chem. Phys. Lett., 36, 301 (1975).Google Scholar
  178. 177.
    J. L. Lyman and S. D. Rockwood, J. Appi. Phys., 47, 595 (1976).Google Scholar
  179. 178.
    J. F. Friichtenicht and S. P. Tang, in Electronic Transition Lasers (J. I. Steinfeld, ed.), Proceedings of the Second Summer Colloquium on Electronic Transition Lasers, Woods Hole, Mass., Sept. 1975 ( MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1976 ), pp. 36–42.Google Scholar
  180. 179.
    C. R. Dickson, H. U. Lee, R. C. Oldenborg, and R. N. Zare, in Electronic Transition Lasers (J. I. Steinfeld ed.), Proceedings of the Second Summer Colloquium on Electronic Transition Lasers, Woods Hole, Mass., Sept. 1976, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass. (1976), pp. 43–49.Google Scholar
  181. 180.
    T. A. Cool, D. G. Harris, and M. S. Chou, Proceedings of the 5th Conference on Chemical and Molecular Lasers, St. Louis, Missouri, April, 1977.Google Scholar
  182. 181.
    R. J. VanZee and A. U. Khan, J. Chem. Phys., 65, 1764 (1976).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Terrill A. Cool
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Applied and Engineering PhysicsCornell UniversityIthacaUSA

Personalised recommendations