Advertisement

Raynaud’s Disease

  • William J. Ray
  • James M. Raczynski
  • Todd Rogers
  • William H. Kimball

Abstract

Raynaud’s disease is a disorder of the vascular system in which the individual experiences pain in the hands, feet, or (rarely) the face as a result of cold stimulation and/or emotional stress. The pain is thought to result from extreme vasoconstriction that reduces peripheral blood flow and may leave the extremities cold to the touch. In a severe case, the individual may experience extreme pain during a Raynaud’s attack and may avoid such common activities as going outside during the winter or shopping in the frozen goods section of a grocery store. Although the frequency of severe cases is quite low, the disorder is found five times more often among women than among men, and, as would be expected, episodes are more frequent during the cold winter months than during warmer weather (Surwit, Pilon, & Fenton, 1978; Taub, 1977). Since the disorder is associated with vasoconstriction and reduced peripheral blood flow, biofeedback treatments for Raynaud’s disease have been of two types, designed to maintain normal peripheral blood flow levels: direct training in peripheral vasodilation feedback and handwarming feedback.

Keywords

Migraine Headache Superficial Temporal Artery Peripheral Blood Flow Cold Stimulation Biofeedback Treatment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • William J. Ray
    • 1
  • James M. Raczynski
    • 1
  • Todd Rogers
    • 1
  • William H. Kimball
    • 1
  1. 1.The Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations