Advertisement

Lithic and Acoustic Stratigraphy of the Equatorial North Pacific: DOMES Sites A, B, and C

  • D. Z. Piper
  • H. E. Cook
  • J. V. Gardner
Part of the Marine Science book series (MR, volume 9)

Abstract

In surface sediment at the three DOMES sites in the equatorial North Pacific, the percentage of reworked fauna and the thickness of the acoustically transparent uppermost layer increases from east to west (Sites C to B to A) and the percentage of volcanogenic products decreases. On the basis of lithology and acoustic signature (3.5 kHz) this sediment can be correlated with surface sediment recovered in Deep Sea Drilling Project cores from this same area. It has been assigned to the radiolarian ooze unit of the Clipperton Ocean Formation. The underlying Marquesas Oceanic Formation, well documented in DSDP cores, was not observed in DOMES cores but was identified in the acoustic records as an acoustically transparent to weakly reflective unit. In the study area, the Clipperton Formation is commonly deeply eroded and unconformable with the sea-floor surface, but the Marquesas Formation is present everywhere and has a fairly uniform thickness.

Keywords

Gravity Core Manganese Nodule Cyclic Unit Oceanic Formation Acoustic Record 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Berger, W.H., (1970) Planktonic foraminifera: selective solution and the lysocline, Mar. Geol. 8, 111–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bogorov, V.G., (1969) The Pacific Ocean» Biology of the Pacific Ocean, Part I - Plankton, (English translation): U.S. Oceano, Office, Washington, D.C,, 435 p.Google Scholar
  3. Bonatti, E., (1963) Zeolites in Pacific pelagic sediment: Trans. N.Y. Acad, Sci. 25, 938–948.Google Scholar
  4. Bramlette, M.N., (1961) Pelagic sediments, in Oceanography: Washington, D.C., Am, Assoc. Adv. Sci. 345–366.Google Scholar
  5. Bukry, D., (1973) Coccolith stratigraphy, eastern equatorial Pacific, in van Andel, Tj. J., Heath, G.R. et al., Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, Washington, D.C., U.S. Govt, Printing Office 16, 915–936.Google Scholar
  6. Church, T.M., (1970) Marine Barite. PhD thesis, Scripps Inst, Oceano,, La Jolla, Calif., 100 p.Google Scholar
  7. Cook, H.E., (1972) Stratigraphy and sedimentation, In Hayes, J.D., (ed) Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, vol. 9, Washington, D.C. (U.S. Govt. Printing Office), p. 933–943.Google Scholar
  8. Cook, H.E., (1975) North American stratigraphic principles as applied to deep sea sediments: Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. Bull, v. 59, 817–837.Google Scholar
  9. Cook, H.E., Piper, D.Z., and Gardner, J.V., (1977) Geologic and oceanographic framework of DOMES Sites A, B, and C: Central equatorial Pacific: In: Piper, D.Z. et al,, (eds.), Deep Ocean Environmental Study: Geology and Geochemistry of DOMES Sites A, B, and C, equatorial North Pacific, U.S. Geol, Survey Open-file Report 77 - 778, 15–81.Google Scholar
  10. Cronan, D.S., (1973) Basal metalliferous sediment cored during Leg 16, Deep Sea Drilling Project, In van Andel, Tj, H., Heath, G.R, et al., 1973, Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project 16, Washington, D.C. (U.S. Govt. Printing Office) 610–604.Google Scholar
  11. Edmond, J.M., Chung, Y., and Sclater, J.G., (1971), Pacific bottom water penetration east of Hawaii, Jour. Geophys, Res., v, 76, 8089–8097.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ewing, J.I., Ewing, M., Aitken, T., and Ludwig, W.J., (1968) North Pacific sediment layers measured by seismic profiling, Am. Geophys. Union Geophys, Mon 12, 147–173.Google Scholar
  13. Gordon, A.L., and Gerard, R.D., (1970) North Pacific bottom potential temperature, In Hayes,J.D., (ed.) Geological investigations of the North Pacific, Geol. Soc, Amer, Mon. 126, 23–39.Google Scholar
  14. Griffin, J.J., and Goldberg, E.D., (1963) Clay-mineral distributions in the Pacific Ocean, In Hill, M.N., (ed.) The Sea 3, New York, Interscience, 728–741.Google Scholar
  15. Hayes, S., (1977) Study of benthic boundary layer, N.E. Pacific, Proceed. 9th Ann, Offshore Tech, Conf, 387–394.Google Scholar
  16. Hayes, J.D., Saito, T., Opdyke, N.D., and Burckle, L.H., (1969) Pliocene-Pleistocene sediment of the eastern equatorial Pacific: their paleomagnetic, biostratigraphic, and climatic record, Geol. Soc, Amer. Bull. 80, 1481–1514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hayes, J.D. et al, (1972) Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project 9, Washington (U.S. Govt. Printing Office ), 1205 p.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Heath, G.R., (1974) Dissolved silica and deep sea sediments: In Hay, W.W., (ed,), Studies in Paleooceanography: Soc. Econ, Paleontologists and Mineralogists Spec. Pub. 20, 77–93.Google Scholar
  19. Heezen, B.C. etal., (1973) Diachronous deposits, a kinetic interpretation of the post-Jurassic sedimentary sequence on the Pacific Plate: Nature, 241, 25–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Horn, D.R., Delach, M.N., and Horn, B.M., (1973) Metal content of ferromanganese deposits of the ocean: IDOE Tech. Report, no. 4, Natl. Sci, Found. Washington, D.C., 57 p. (unpublished).Google Scholar
  21. Johnson, D.A., (1972a) Eastward flowing bottom currents along the Clipperton Fracture Zone: Deep Sea Research 19, 253–257.Google Scholar
  22. Johnson, D.A., (1972b) Ocean-floor erosion in the Equatorial Pacific: Geol. Soc Amer, Bull, 83, 3121–3144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Johnson, T.C., (1976) Controls on the preservation of biogenic opal in sediments of the eastern Tropical Pacific: Science, 192, 887–890.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lisitzin, A.P., (1972) Sedimentation in the World Ocean (English translation), Soc. Econ, Paleon. Min., Sp. Publ, no, 17, 218 p.Google Scholar
  25. Luyendyk, B.P., (1970) Origin and history of abyssal hills in the northeast Pacific Ocean: Geol. Soc. Amer, Bull. 81, 2237–2260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lyle, M., Dymond, J. and Heath, G.R. (1977) Copper-nickel-enrichment in ferromanganese nodules and associated crusts from the Bauer Basin, northwest Nazca Plate, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, 35, 55–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Moberly, R, and Klein, G.D., (1976) Jour. Sed. Pet. 46, Ephemeral color in deep sea cores, 261–225.Google Scholar
  28. Mudie, J.D., and Grow, J.A., 1972, Near bottom observations on the detailed topography of an area of abyssal hills in a manganese nodule province (Abs,), In Horn, D.A. (ed.) Ferromanganese deposits on the ocean floor, IDOE Tech. Rept., Natl. Sci. Found. Washington, D.C., 293 p.Google Scholar
  29. Piper, D.Z., 1976, Physiographic characteristics of the equatorial North Pacific and of DOMES Site C: In Bischoff, J.L. et al., Deep Ocean Mining Environmental Study, N.E. Pacific Nodule Province, Site C, Geology and Geochemistry, U.S. Geol. Survey Open-file Report 75–548, 16–62.Google Scholar
  30. Piper, D.Z., and Williamson, M.E., (1977) Composition of Pacific Ocean ferromanganese nodules, Mar. Geol. V. 23, 285–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Piper, D.Z., Leong, K., and Cannon, W.L., (1979) Manganese nodule and surface sediment compositions (this volume).Google Scholar
  32. Price, N.B., and Calvert, S.E., (1970) Composition variation in Pacific Ocean ferromanganese nodules and its Relationship to Sediment Accumulation Rates: Mar. Geol, 9, 145–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Quinterno, P. and Theyer, F., (1979) Biostratigraphy of the equatorial North Pacific DOMES Sites A, B, and C (this volume).Google Scholar
  34. Reid, J.L., (1962) On the circulation, phosphate-phosphorus content and zooplankton volumes in the upper part of the Pacific Ocean: Limnol. Oceano. 7, 287–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Reid, J.U. Jr., (1969) Preliminary results of measurements of deep currents in the Pacific Ocean, Nature 221, 848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rex, R.W., and Goldberg, E.D., (1958) Quartz contents of pelagic sediment of the Pacific Ocean: Tellus, 10, 153–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Richter, H. and Schlüter, H.U., (1973) VALDIVIA exploration for manganese nodules, 1973, preliminary results of seismic reflection survey, In Morgenstein, M. (ed) The Origin and Distribution of Manganese Nodules in the Pacific and Prospects for Exploration, Honolulu, Hawaii, Inst. Geophys., 139–144.Google Scholar
  38. Riedel, W.R. and Funnell, B.M., (1964) Tertiary sediment cores and microfossils from the Pacific Ocean floor, Geol. Soc. London Quart. Jour. 120, 305–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Romankevich, E.A., (1976) Organic matter of sediments to the east of Japan and its effect on oxidation-reduction processes in Volkov, II. ed. Biogeochemical Diagenesis of Marine Sediment, Moscow, Nayka, 5–19.Google Scholar
  40. Ryan, W.B.F. and Heezen, B.C., (1976) Smothering of Deep Sea Benthic Communities from Natural Disasters: National Oceanic and Atmosoheric Administration, Tech. Rept. Cont. 03-6-022-35120, 132 p.Google Scholar
  41. Schlanger, S.O., and Douglas, R.G., (1974) The ooze-chalkr-limestone transition and its implications for marine stratigraphy, In Hsu, K.J., and Jenkyns, H.C., (eds.) Pelagic sediments on land and under the sea, Internatl. Assoc. Sed. Spec. Publ. 1, London, Blackwell.Google Scholar
  42. Simpson, F., Wallin, C.S., Crawford, H.M., and Springer, P.C., (1977) Geotechnical properties of NE Pacific sediments from DOMES Sites A, B, and C, in Piper, D.Z. et al., (eds), Deep Ocean Environmental Study: Geology and Geochemistry of DOMES Sites A, B, and C, Equatorial North Pacific, U.S. Geol. Survey Open-file Rept, 77–778, 351–492.Google Scholar
  43. Tracey, J.I., Sutton, G.D. et al, (1971) Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project 8, Washington ( US Govt. Printing Office ), 1037 p.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. van Andel, Tj, H., Heath, G.R. etal., (1973) Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project 16, Washington (US Govt Printing Office), 949 p.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. von der Borch, C.C., and Rex, R.W., (1970) Amorphous iron oxide precipitates in sediments cored during Leg 5, Deep Sea Drilling Project, in McManus, D.A., Burns, R.E. et al, Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project 5, Washington, D.C., ( US Govt Printing Office ) 541–544.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Z. Piper
    • 1
  • H. E. Cook
    • 1
  • J. V. Gardner
    • 1
  1. 1.U.S. Geological SurveyMenlo ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations