Advertisement

Extractive Chemistry of Equatorial Pacific Pelagic Sediments and Relationship to Nodule Forming Processes

  • Carl J. Bowser
  • Barbara A. Mills
  • E. Callender
Part of the Marine Science book series (MR, volume 9)

Abstract

In order to help understand early diagenetic processes in sediments potentially important to the formation of marine manganese nodules a series of selective extraction experiments were performed on sediments associated with nodule areas from the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean. Phase selective extractants used were hydroxylamine hydrochloride (buffered and unbuffered), buffered citrate-dithionite; and hydrochloric acid. In hydroxylamine hydrochloride extractions of red-brown clay a rapid initial release of all metals within the first minute is followed by a slow, long term dissolution. The pH of the extraction solutions rises abruptly in the first minute, levels off, and drops steadily for the rest of the extraction. In sequential, batch-extraction experiments using 0.1N HC1 and hydroxylamine hydrochloride, Cu is readily released in HC1, but the release of Mn, Ni, Co, and Ca is greater in hydroxylamine hydrochloride. Buffering of solutions by dissolution of calcium carbonate in an artificial carbonate/manganese nodule mixture depresses Cu release in HCl, and enhances Mn, Ni, Co, and Fe release in hydroxylamine hydrochloride.

Transition metal release in hydroxylamine hydrochloride can be modeled to a compound first order rate equation. The release rates of Fe, Cu, Ni, and Ca are evidently controlled by at least two phases in red-brown clay. The differences in Fe, Cu, and Ni behavior indicate different phases are controlling their dissolution, and is in agreement with suggested sources of Cu from nodules, Fe at a higher rate in sediments, and Cu accumulating at a rate an order of magintude in sedimants.

Keywords

Manganese Oxide Extractive Chemistry Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride Manganese Nodule Pelagic Sediment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anderson, B.J., and Jenne, E.A., (1970) Free-iron and -manganese oxide content of reference clays, Soil Science 109, 163–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arrhenius, G., ((1963) Pelagic sediments, In The Sea 3, M.N. Hill (ed.), Interscience Publishers, New York, 655–727.Google Scholar
  3. Bender, M.L., (1971) Does upward diffusion supply the excess manganese in pelagic sediments?, J. Geophys. Res. 76, 4212–4215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berner, R.A., (1971) Principles of Chemical Sedimentology, McGraw Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  5. Berner, R.A., and Morse, J.W., (1974) Dissolution kinetics of calcium carbonate in seawater, IV, Theory of calcite dissolution, Am. Jour. Sci. 274, 108–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bishop, J.K., Edmond, J.M., Ketten, D.R., Bacon, M.P., and Silker, W.B., (1977) The chemistry, biology, and vertical flux of particulate matter from the upper 400 m of the equatorial Atlantic Ocean, Deep-sea Research 24, 511–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bostrom, K., Kraemer, T., and Gartner, S., (1973) Provence and accumulation rates of opaline silica, A1, Ti, Mn, Cu, Ni, and Co in Pacific pelagic sediments, Chem. Geol. 11, 123–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boudreau, B.P., and Scott, M.R., (1978) A model for the diffusion controlled growth of deep-sea manganese nodules, Am. J. Sci. 278, 903–929.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boyle, E.A., Sclater, F.R. and Edmond, J.M., (1977) The distribution of dissolved copper in the Pacific, Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett. 37, 38–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Burns, R.G. and Burns, V.M., (1977) Mineralogy of ferromanganese nodules, In Marine Manganese Deposits, G.P. Glasby (ed.), Elsevier, Amsterdam, 185–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Burns, R.G. and Fuerstenau, D.W., (1966) Electron-probe determination of inter-element relationships in manganese nodules, Am. Min. S5, 895–902.Google Scholar
  12. Busenberg, E., and Clemency, C.V., (1976) The dissolution kinetics of feldspars at 25°C and one atmosphere CO2 partial pressure, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 40, 41–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Callender, E., Bowser, C.J., and Shedlock, R., (in press) Manganese and copper geochemistry of interstitial fluids from manganese nodule-rich pelagic sediments of the northeastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, Am. Jour. Sci. Google Scholar
  14. Calvert, S.E., and Price, N.B., (1972) Diffusion and reaction profiles of dissolved manganese in the pore waters of marine sediments, Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett. 16, 245–249.Google Scholar
  15. Chao, T.T., (1972) Selective dissolution of manganese oxides from soils and sediments with acidified hydroxylamine hydrochloride, Soil Science Soc. America Proceed. 36, 764–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chester, R., and Hughes, M.J., (1967) A chemical technique for the separation of ferro-manganese minerals, carbonate minerals and adsorbed trace elements from pelagic sediments, Chem. Geol. 2, 249–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chester, R. and Messiha-Hanna, R.G., (1970) Trace element partition patterns in north Atlantic deep-sea sediments, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 34, 1121–1128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Elderfield, H., (1977) Manganese fluxes to the oceans, Marine Chem. 4, 103–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gardiner, Jr., W.C., (1972) Rates and Mechanisms of Chemical Reactions, W.A. Benjamin, Menlo Park, California.Google Scholar
  20. Gibbs, R., (1977) Transport phases of transition metals in the Amazon and Yukon Rivers, Geol. Soc. Am, Bull. 88, 829–843.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Greenslate, J.L., (1975) Manganese-biota associations in northeastern equatorial Pacific sediments, Unpubl. PhD Thesis, Univ. Calif.-San Diego.Google Scholar
  22. Harriss, R.C., and Troup, A.G., (1970) Chemistry and origin of fresh-water ferromanganese concretions, Limnology and Oceanography 15, 702–712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Heath, G.R., and Dymond, J., (1977) Genesis and transformation of metalliferous sediments from the East Pacific Rise, Bauer Deep, and Central Basin, northwest Nazca Plate, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 88, 723–733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jefferies, D.S. and Stumm, W., (1976) The metal adsorption of Buserite, The Canadian Mineralogist 14, 16–22.Google Scholar
  25. Kraemer, T. and Schornick, J.C., (1974) Comparison of elemental accumulation rates between ferromanganese deposits and sediments in the south Pacific Ocean, Chem. Geol. 13, 187–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lerman, A., MacKenzie, F.T., and Bricker, O.P., (1975) Rates of dissolution of aluminosilicate in seawater, Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett. 25, 82–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Li, Y-H, Bischoff, J.L. and Mathieu, G., (1969) The migration of manganese in the Arctic Basin sediment, Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett. 7, 265–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. McKenzie, R.M., (1970) The reaction of cobalt with manganese dioxide minerals, Australian Jour, of Soil Res. 8, 97–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mehra, O.P. and Jackson, M.L., (1960) Iron oxide removal from soils and clays by a dithionite-citrate system buffered with sodium bicarbonate, Clays and Clay Min., Proceedings National Conference 7, 317–327.Google Scholar
  30. Mills, B.A., (1978) Selective kinetic extractions of some northeastern equatorial Pacific pelagic sediments, Unpubl. M.S. Thesis, Dept. Geology and Geophysics, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison.Google Scholar
  31. Ostwald, J. and Frazier, F.W., (1973) Chemical and mineralogical investigations on deep-sea manganese nodules from the Southern Ocean, Miner. Deposita 8, 303–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Paces, Tomas, (1973) Steady state kinetics and equilibrium between groundwater and rock, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 37, 2641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Petrovic, R., (1976) Rate control in feldspar dissolution - II, The protective effect of precipitates, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 40, 1509–1521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Posselt, H.S., Anderson, F.J., and Weber, W.J., Jr., (1968) Cation sorption on colloidal hydrous manganese dioxide, Environmental Science and Technology 2, 1087–1093.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rabb, W., (1967) Physical and chemical features of Pacific deep- sea manganese nodules and their implications to the genesis of nodules, in Ferromanganese Deposits on the Ocean Floor, D.R. Horn (ed.), Harriman, New York.Google Scholar
  36. Schwertmann, U., (1964) Differenzierung der Eisenoxide des Bodens durch Extraktion mit Ammoniumoxalate-Losung, Z. Plansenernachr Dueng. Bodenk., 105, 194–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sclater, F.R., Boyle, E., and Edmond, J.M., (1976) On the marine geochemistry of nickel, Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett. 31, 119–128.Google Scholar
  38. Strickland, J.D.H., and Parsons, T.R., (1968) A Practical Hand-book of Seawater Analysis, Bulletin of the Fisheries Research Board, Canada, 167 p.Google Scholar
  39. Tsuzuki, Y., Mizutani, S., Shimizu, H., and Hayashi, H., (1974) Kinetics of alteration of K-feldspar and its application to the alteration zoning, Geochem. Jour. 8, 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wollast, R., (1967) Kinetics of the alteration of K-feldspar in buffered solutions at low temperature, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 31, 635–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carl J. Bowser
    • 1
  • Barbara A. Mills
    • 1
  • E. Callender
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Geology and GeophysicsUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA
  2. 2.National CenterU.S. Geological SurveyRestonUSA

Personalised recommendations