Extractive Chemistry of Equatorial Pacific Pelagic Sediments and Relationship to Nodule Forming Processes

  • Carl J. Bowser
  • Barbara A. Mills
  • E. Callender
Part of the Marine Science book series (MR, volume 9)


In order to help understand early diagenetic processes in sediments potentially important to the formation of marine manganese nodules a series of selective extraction experiments were performed on sediments associated with nodule areas from the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean. Phase selective extractants used were hydroxylamine hydrochloride (buffered and unbuffered), buffered citrate-dithionite; and hydrochloric acid. In hydroxylamine hydrochloride extractions of red-brown clay a rapid initial release of all metals within the first minute is followed by a slow, long term dissolution. The pH of the extraction solutions rises abruptly in the first minute, levels off, and drops steadily for the rest of the extraction. In sequential, batch-extraction experiments using 0.1N HC1 and hydroxylamine hydrochloride, Cu is readily released in HC1, but the release of Mn, Ni, Co, and Ca is greater in hydroxylamine hydrochloride. Buffering of solutions by dissolution of calcium carbonate in an artificial carbonate/manganese nodule mixture depresses Cu release in HCl, and enhances Mn, Ni, Co, and Fe release in hydroxylamine hydrochloride.

Transition metal release in hydroxylamine hydrochloride can be modeled to a compound first order rate equation. The release rates of Fe, Cu, Ni, and Ca are evidently controlled by at least two phases in red-brown clay. The differences in Fe, Cu, and Ni behavior indicate different phases are controlling their dissolution, and is in agreement with suggested sources of Cu from nodules, Fe at a higher rate in sediments, and Cu accumulating at a rate an order of magintude in sedimants.


Manganese Oxide Extractive Chemistry Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride Manganese Nodule Pelagic Sediment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carl J. Bowser
    • 1
  • Barbara A. Mills
    • 1
  • E. Callender
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Geology and GeophysicsUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA
  2. 2.National CenterU.S. Geological SurveyRestonUSA

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