Sedimentation, Hiatuses, and Development of Manganese Nodules: VALDIVIA Site Va-13/2, Northern Central Pacific

  • Ulrich von Stackelberg
Part of the Marine Science book series (MR, volume 9)


An area 20 × 20 nautical miles, within the abyssal hill region of the northern Central Pacific, has been sampled intensively by R/V VALDIVIA. The sediments represent four facies characterized by variations in color, structure and composition. A marked unconformity between facies II and III was dated by radiolaria and coccoliths as early Miocene to late Pliocene and is explained by an intensification of AABW circulation. We note a maximum of reworking, dissolution of siliceous organisms and growth of authigenic minerals above and below this unconformity. Dissolution of siliceous organisms seems to control the growth of minerals such as zeolites and Fe-Mn-oxides. Fe-Mn-oxides were precipitated both as micro and macro nodules. While the micro nodules remained in place, most of the macronodules were pushed upwards by benthic organisms and were kept at the sediment surface. Thus, the surface nodules appear to be “foreigners” in the recent sediments and represent the conditions of a past environment.


Surface Nodule Manganese Nodule Piston Core Hiatus Level Ferromanganese Nodule 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ulrich von Stackelberg
    • 1
  1. 1.Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und RohstoffeHannoverFederal Republic of Germany

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