Occurrence and Character of Manganese Nodules in DOMES Sites A, B, and C, East Equatorial Pacific Ocean
Study of the occurrence and physical and chemical character of manganese nodules collected in box cores in DOMES Sites A, B, and C indicates that virtually all nodules lie at the sediment-water interface. Buried nodules are rare. Nodules seem to be smaller and have smoother surfaces at Site A than at Sites B and C. Site C nodules are predominantly 2 to 6 cm in size and have smooth tops and granular bottoms.
Nodules from all sites show non-uniform contents of Mn, Fe, Ni and Cu within individual box cores. The greatest variations were found in box cores from Sites A and C. Mn, Ni, and Cu are generally covariant whereas Fe content is antithetic to Mn content Large variations in metal content are generally due to differences in oxide mineralogy but some variation is related to clay content. Large nodules tend to be relatively low in Mn, Ni, and Cu.
Site B nodules have the highest mean values for Mn, Ni, and Cu and the lowest mean Fe content. Site C nodules and Site A nodules have the same Mn content, but Site C nodules are richer in Ni and poorer in Fe than Site A nodules.
KeywordsMetal Content Nodule Size Nodule Surface Manganese Nodule Ferromanganese Deposit
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Andrews, J.E., Callender, E., Bowser, C.J,, Mero, J.L., Gauthier, M., Meylan, M.A., Craig, J.D., Binder, Ki5 Volk, P., Chane, A., and Bachman, W. (1974), Ferromanganese Deposits of the Ocean Floor, Crust Report Mn-74-01, Hawaii Instit. Geophys, Rept. HIG-74-9, 194 p.Google Scholar
- Arrhenius, G., (1963) Pelagic sediments, In The Sea: Ideas and observations on progress in the study of the seas, M,N. Hill, Ed., Interscience, New York, v. 3, 655–727,Google Scholar
- Backer, H., Glasby, G.P., and Meylan, M.A., (1976) Manganese nodules from the southwestern Pacific Basin: Oceanographic Field Report No. 6, New Zealand Oceanographic Institute, D.S.I.R., Wellington, 88 p.Google Scholar
- Banning, D.L., (1975) Copper-nickel-cobalt associations in marine manganese nodules (abstract): Am. Geophys, Union Trans., v. 56, no. 12, p. 1000.Google Scholar
- Burns, R.G. and Fuerstenau, D.W., (1966) Electron-probe determination of inter-element relationships in manganese nodules: Am. Mineralogist v. 51, 895–902.Google Scholar
- Carr, G.A., (1970) Marine manganese nodules: identification and occurrences of minerals, MS Thesis, Washington State Univ., Pullman, 101 p. (unpublished).Google Scholar
- Fewkes, R.H., (1976) The origin of marine manganese nodules as determined by textural and mineralogical analysis: Ph.D. Thesis (unpubl.) Washington State Univ., Pullman, Wa, 169 p.Google Scholar
- Fewkes, R.H. and Sorem, R.K., (1976) Todorokite and birnessite in MOANA WAVE nodules from the northeastern Pacific Ocean 1974 (abstr): Second Internat. Sympos. on Manganese, 25th Internatl. Geol. Congress, Sydney, August 1976.Google Scholar
- Fewkes, R.H., McFarland, W.D., Reinhart, W.R., and Sorem, R.K., (1979) Development of a reliable method for evolution of deep sea manganese nodule deposits, Final Report, Contract No. GO 274013-MAS, U.S. Bur, of Mines, Spokane, 91 p.Google Scholar
- Foster, A.R. (1970) Marine manganese nodules: nature and origin of internal features, MS Thesis, Washington State Univ., Pullman, Wa, 131 p. (unpubl),Google Scholar
- Frazer, J.Z. and Arrhenius, G., (1972) World-wide distribution of ferromanganese nodules and element concentration in selected Pacific nodules, Tech. Rep. Off. Int. Decade Ocean Explor. 2, 51 p.Google Scholar
- Horn, D.R., Horn, B.M., and Delach, M.N., (1972) Ferromanganese deposits of the North Pacific, Tech, Rep. Off. Int. Decade Ocean Explor. 1, 78 p.Google Scholar
- Margolis, S. v., Bowser, C.J., Murray, J., Mero, JfLs, Hardy, W., Dudley, W.C., Dugolinsky, B.K,, Binder, K., Hall, Rf, and Boatman, C., (1975) Ferromanganese Deposits of the Ocean Floor, Cruise Report Mn-74-02, Hawaii Instit. Geophys. Report HIG-75-17, 121 p.Google Scholar
- Mero, J.L., (1965) The Mineral Resources of the Sea, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 312 p.Google Scholar
- Piper, D.Z. (compiler) (1977) Deep Ocean Environmental Study: Geology and Geochemistry of DOMES Sites A, B, and C, Equatorial North Pacific, U.S. Geol. Survey Open-file Report No. 77–778, 527 p.Google Scholar
- Raab, W.J., (1972) Physical and chemical features of Pacific deep sea manganese nodules and their implication to the genesis of nodules, In Ferromanganese Deposits on the Ocean Floor, D.R. Horn (ed.), National Sci. Found., Washington D.C., 31–49.Google Scholar
- Reinhart, W.R., Sorem, R.K., and Fewkes, R.H., (1978) Metal variations in Pacific manganese nodules from a potential deep sea mining area (abstr).: IAGOD Internat. Sym,, Snowbird, Utah, August 1978.Google Scholar
- Sorem, R.K., and Fewkes, R.H., (1976) Variations in manganese nodules in a one-ton dredge haul: an unsolicited report submitted to Deep Sea Ventures, Inc., 28 May 1976.Google Scholar
- Sorem, R.K., McFarland, W.D., and Fewkes, R.H., (1978a) Nature and significance of a diffuse sediment-water interface “boundary layer” in East Pacific manganese nodule deposits (abstr).: IAG0D Internat. Sym., Snowbird, Utah August 1978.Google Scholar
- Sorem, R.K., Fewkes, R.H., McFarland, W.D., and Reinhart, W.R., (1978b) Physical aspects of the growth environment of manganese nodules in the Horn Region, east equatorial Pacific Ocean; Invited paper, Colloque International No. 238, Sur la Genese des Nodules de Manganese, Gif-sur — Yvette, France, 25–30 Sept. 1978, 56 p.Google Scholar
- Steel, R.G.D., and Torrie, J.H., (1960) Principles and procedures of statistics, McGraw Hill, New York, p. 20.Google Scholar