The Preparation of Clean Water Surfaces for Fluid Mechanics

  • John C. Scott


This paper describes the criteria used in the preparation and characterization of clean and controlled water surfaces for experimental fluid mechanics. Small levels of surface contamination are shown to be capable of changing the whole character of certain free surface flows. The basis on which a surface can be considered clean is discussed, and acceptable techniques for determining the presence or absence of surface-active contamination are outlined.


Surface Tension Fluid Mechanic Surface Viscosity Wilhelmy Plate Potassium Permanganate Solution 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    C.V. Boys, “Soap Bubbles: Their Colours and the Forces which Mould Them”, S.P.C.K., London, 1890; enlarged edition, Dover, New York, 1959.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    C. Isenberg, “The Science of Soap Films and Soap Bubbles”, Tieto Ltd., Clevedon, U.K., 1978, ISBN 0–905028–02–3.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    K.J. Mysels and A.T. Florence, in “Clean Surfaces”, G. Goldfinger Editor, pp. 227–268, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1970.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    G.L. Gaines, Jr. , “Insoluble Monolayers at Liquid-Gas Interfaces”, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1966.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    J.C. Scott and R.W.B. Stephens, J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., 52, 871 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    F.C. Goodrich, J. Phys. Chem., 66 1858 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    R.J. Mannheimer and R.S. Schechter, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 32, 195, 225 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    T.B. Benjamin, in “Cavitation in Real Liquids”, R. Davies, Editor, pp. 164 – 180, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1964.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    J.F. Padday, in “Surface and Colloid Science”, E. Matijevic, Editor, Vol.1, pp. 101–149, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1969.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    F.P. Pike and J.C. Bonnet, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 34, 597 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J.F. Padday and A. Pitt, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 38, 323 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    J.F. Padday, R. Pashley, and A. Pitt, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. I, 71, 1919 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    J.C. Scott, J. Fluid Mech., 69, 339 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    J.C. Scott, History of Technology, 3, 163 (1978).Google Scholar
  15. 15..
    J.C. Scott, “Oil on Troubled Waters? A Bibliography on the Effects of Surface-Active Films on Surface-Wave Motions”, Multi-Science, London, 1979, ISBN 0–906522–00–5.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. Lucassen and R.S. Hansen, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 22, 32 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    E.H. Lucassen-Reynders and J. Lucassen, Adv. Colloid Interface Sci., 2, 347 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    J. Lucassen and M. van den Tempel, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 41, 491 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    F.C. Goodrich, L.A. Allen, and A. Poskanzer, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 52, 201 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    J.L. Anderson and J.A. Quinn, Chem. Eng. Sci., 25, 373 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    W.B. Krantz, Personal communication, 1975.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    V.G. Gleim, I.K. Shelomov, and B.R. Shidlovskii, J. Appl. Chem. USSR, 32, 1069 (1959).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    S.A. Zieminski and R.C. Whittemore, Chem. Eng. Sci., 26, 509 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    J.T. Davies and R.W. Vose, Proc Roy. Soc, 286A, 218 (1965).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    G.A. Askarfyan, E.K. Karlova, R.P. Petrov, and V.B. Studenov, J.E.T.P. Lett., 18 389 (1973).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    H. Lamb, “Hydrodynamics”, Article 304, 2nd Edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1895.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lord Rayleigh, Phil. Mag., 30, 386 (1890).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    A. Pockels, Nature, 43, 437 (1891).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    J.D. Robinson and S. Hartland, Tenside, 9, 301 (1972).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    J.A. Kitchener and C.F. Cooper, Quart.Rev.Chem.Soc., 13, 71 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    J.F. Harper, Adv. Appl. Mech., 12, 59 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    C. Bachhuber and C. Sanford, J. Appl. Phys., 45, 2567 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Anon., Anal. Chem., 46 799A (1974).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    I. Langmuir, J. Am. Chem. Soc, 39, 1848 (1917).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • John C. Scott
    • 1
  1. 1.Fluid Mechanics Research InstituteUniversity of EssexColchesterEngland

Personalised recommendations