Advertisement

Plasma Cleaning of Surfaces

  • W. W. Balwanz

Abstract

Surface cleaning is achieved by various techniques; such as washing with solvents, thermal heating, and ion bombardment. No one method has the desired features of simplicity, low cost, and effectiveness. Each has its range of applicability. Solvent cleaning has the greatest range of utility but is inadequate in many cases, particularly where the solvents themselves are contaminates. Thermal heating is useful up to the temperature limits of the surfaces to be cleaned. Ion bombardment with plasmas provide a method of cleaning where contaminant bond strengths exceed the temperature limits of the system. The plasma energy can be much higher than that achieved thermally, yet not damage surfaces because of the low thermal flux. The current techniques used in surface cleaning, their application and limitations, and the potential for future developments are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on plasma cleaning because of its versatility and its potential for cleaning of high bonding energy contaminants.

Keywords

Contact Angle Glow Discharge Naval Research Laboratory Electron Volt Thermal Heating 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    E. G. Derouane and A. A. Lucas, “Electronic Structure and Reactivity of Metals Surfaces,” Plenum Press, New York, 1976.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. P. Weston and W. W. Balwanz, “Surface Cleaning by Glow Discharge in a High Volume Gas Flow,” Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Report 7973 (April 7, 1976).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    E. G. Shafrin and W. A. Zisman, “Upper Limits for the Contact Angles of Liquids on Solids,” NRL Report 5985 (September 1963).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    E. G. Shafrin and W. A. Zisman, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 9 (1967).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. K. Bernett and W. A. Zisman, J. Colloid Interface Science 28 , 2 (1968).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. K. Bernett and W. A. Zisman, J. Colloid Interface Science 29, 3 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. P. Weston, “A Method to Estimate the Contact Angle of a Drop Spread Upon a Flat Surface When It Is Otherwise Too Flat to Measure,” NRL Memorandum Report 3201 (January 1976).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    E. G. Shafrin and J. S. Murday, J. Vac. Sci. Techno1., 14, 246, (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    W. A. Zisman and M. K. Bernett, “Surface-Active Compositions and Method for Displacing Liquid Organic Films from Solids Surfaces,” Patented March 3, 1970.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. S. Murday, E. G. Shafrin, E. P. Kingsbury, and S. Allen, “Surface Chemistry of Ball Bearing Steels I: Interim Report,” NRL (April 1975).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    W. A. Zisman and M. K. Bernett, “Displacing Organic Liquids from Solid Surfaces,” Patented June 23, 1970.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    H. R. Baker and P. B. Leach, “Surface Chemical Methods of Displacing Water and/or Oils and Salvaging Flooded Equipment— Part 4—Aggressive Cleaner Formulations for Use on Corroded Equipment,” Interim Rpt., NRL (June 15, 1965).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    H. R. Baker, R. N. Bolster and P. B. Leach, “Surface Chemical Methods of Displacing Water and/or Oils and Salvaging Flooded Equipment: Part 6—Field Experience in Removing Seawater Salt Residues from Aircraft Cockpits and Avionics Equipment,” NRL (December 12, 1968).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    H. R. Baker and P. B. Leach, “Composition and Method for Cleaning Salt Residues from Metal Surfaces,” Patented January 20, 1970.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. B. Bradform, Jr., “The Adhesion of Nickel Using An Ion Bombardment and Heating Cleaning Technique,” 1968 Vacuum Met. Conf., Beverly Hills, Calif., June 10–13, 1968.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. M. Walls and H. N. Southworth, Surface Technol., 4 255, (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Y. Aoki, J. Polym, Sci. Polym. Phys. Ed., 15, 199 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    J. C. Bean, E. G. Becker, P. M. Petroff, and T. E. Seidel, J. Appl. Phys., 43, 907 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    S. Naiditch, “Stable Dense Cold Plasma,” Final Report, Unified Science Associates, Inc., Pasadena, Calif. (February 1966).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    J. E. Houston and R. D. Bland, J. Appl. Phys., 45, 2504 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    D. F. O’Kane and K. L. Mittal, J. Vac. Sci. Technol., 11, 567 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    J. H. Greiner, J. Appl. Phys., p. 5151 (1971).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    K. H. Tiefert and W. H. Legat, “Sputtering In the Manufacturing of Advanced Semiconductor Devices,” Trans. Conf. and Sch. on Elements, Techniques and Applications of Sputtering, p. 21, Bringhton, England, November 7–9, 1971.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    E. E. Gifford and R. T. Yoshino, “Plasma Treatment of Railway Rails to Improve Traction,” 1971 Rail Transportation Proc. Joint IEEE/ASME Railroad Conference, New York, New York, April 20, 1971.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    E. Suurmeijer, A. Boers and S. Begemann, Surface Sci., 4, 424 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    N. Henzler, Surface Sci., 22, 12 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    S. Naiditch, “Stable Dense Cold Plasma: Final Technical Report,” Unified Science Associates, Inc., Pasadena, Calif. (February 1966).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    S. K. Dolotov, S. A. Evstigneev, S. Y. Luk’yanov, Y. V. Martynenko, and V. M. Chicherov, “Removal of Foreign Atoms From a Metal Surface Bombarded with Fast Atomic Particles,” International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Berchtesgaden, Germany, October 6, 1976.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    T. L. Thomas, “An Experimental Study of the Effects of Surface and Gas Contamination on Langmuir Probe Measurements in An Argon Glow Discharge,” Air Force Inst, of Tech, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio (June 1969).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    R. L. Shannon and R. B. Gillette, “Plasma Cleaning Device,” National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), j Huntsville, Alabama, Patent Filed May 10, 1976.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    G. J. Kominiak and J. E. Uhl, “In Situ Investigation of Substrate Surface Recontamination During Glow Discharge Sputter Cleaning,” Sandia Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico (September 1975).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    T. Farrell, “Cleaning of Specimens in the Electron Spectrometer Using an Argon Ion Gun,” Electricity Council Research Center, Capenhurst, England (March 1972).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    A. P. Dehamel and L. D. Nelson, “Improvement of Interlaminar Shear Strength in Organic Matrix Composites Utilizing Plasma Deposited Coupling Agents,” Commonwealth Scientific Corp., Alexandria, Virginia (April 30, 1972).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    “Evaluation of Plasma Cleaning and Electron Spectroscopy for Reduction of Organic Contamination,” Boeing Co., Seattle, Washington (May 1972).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    J. R. Ligenza and M. Kuhn, Solid State Tech., 13, 33 (1970).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    V. V. Lyaginskov, Elektron Obrab Mater,, 667, 46 (1976).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    R. L. Bersin, Ind. Res., 17, No. 4, 60, (1975).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    G. J. Kominiak and J. E. Uhl, J. Vac. Sci. Tech., 13, 170 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    S. K. Sharma and R. Kushwaha, Surface Sci., 18, 449 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    L. Smith, D. Hill, J. Hibbs, S. W. Kim, J. Andrade and D. Lyman, Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. Prepr., 16, 186 (1975).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    D. V. McCaughan, “Use of Plasmas in CCD Processing,” University of Edinburgh, Center for Ind. Consult, and Liaison, Scotland (1974).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    D. J. Dobbs, “Energy Transfer and Surface Cleaning with a D. C. Arc Plasma Generator,” 9th International Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases, September 1–6, 1969.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    F. M. Cobb, Sheet Metal Ind., 51, 280 (1974).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    D. V. McCaughan and R. A. Kushner, Thin Solid Films, 22, 359 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    A. W. Jones, E. Jones and E. M. Williams, Vacuum, 23, 227 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    F. G. Koch, R. L. Meek and D. V. McCaughan, J. Electrochem. Soc, 121, 558 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. W. Balwanz
    • 1
  1. 1.Mattox, Inc.AlexandriaUSA

Personalised recommendations