The forests of New England were cleared for the plow to grow food and were stripped for logs to build cabins. And, as America grew, so did the need for lumber. The forests of Michigan filled this need with lumber to build new cities and to rebuild Chicago after the Great Fire. It made men rich for it was worth two billion dollars—or twice the estimated value of the gold resulting from the California gold rush of 1849. At the turn of the century, America sought to heal much of the scars from this unrestricted logging. Seed of native American white pine was shipped to Germany where seedlings were raised. On the return voyage, some of these seedlings carried infections of Cronartium ribicola, the fungus that causes white pine blister rust (Fig. 49-1). Presumably the fungus originated in Asia and spread to the European continent.
KeywordsGerm Tube Rust Fungus Dead Leaf European Continent Disease Cycle
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- Offord, H. R., Quick, C. R., and Moss, V. D., “Blister Rust Control Aided by the Use of Chemicals for Killing Ribes.” Journal of Forestry, Vol. 56 (January, 1958), pp. 12–18.Google Scholar