Potential Applications of Molecular Metals

  • Susumu Yoshimura
Part of the Nato Conference Series book series (NATOCS, volume 1)


Design and synthesis of novel materials with extremely high electrical conductivity has been the main concern for those involved in this new subfield of solid state chemistry of molecular solids (1). Even though most of the investigators have been concerned with academic sciences, they would never hesitate to exploit possible technological applications. In fact, after Professor Inokuchi conceived the concept of organic semiconductors in 1954 (2), realization of new devices such as organic transistors was expected to result from the extensive research around 1960 (3). Recent explosive activities have also been much stimulated by the interest in a high-temperature superconductor (4).


Barium Titanate Inclusion Compound Vanadium Oxide Ceramic Varistor Metallic Nature 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    J. S. Miller and A. J. Epstein, Prog. Inorg. Chem. 20, 1 (1976);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 1a.
    J. S. Miller, Annal N.Y.A.S., 313, 25 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 2.
    H. Inokuchi, Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 27, 22 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 3.
    F. Gutmann and L. E. Lyons, Organic Semiconductors (John Wiley and Sons Inc., N.Y., 1967) p.632.Google Scholar
  5. 4.
    L. B. Coleman, M. J. Cohen, D. J. Sandman, F. G. Yamagishi, A. F. Garito, and A. J. Heeger, Solid State Commun. 12, 1125 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 5.
    H. Akamatsu, H. Inokuchi, and Y. Matsunaga, Nature 173, 168 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 6.
    A. M. Hermann and E. Luksha, J. Cardiovasc. Pulm. Tech. 6, 15 (1978).Google Scholar
  8. 7.
    D. W. Murphy and F. A. Trumbore, J. Cryst. Growth 39, 185 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 8.
    J. H. Perlstein, Angew. Chem. 16, 519 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 9.
    E. M. Engler, V. V. Patel, J. R. Andersen, Y. Tomkiewiez, R. A. Craver, B. A. Scott, and S. Etemad, to be published.Google Scholar
  11. 10.
    S. Yoshimura and M. Murakami, Annal N.Y.A.S., 313, 269 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 11.
    (a) H. Shirakawa, E. J. Louis, A. G. MacDiarmid, C. K. Chiang, and A. J. Heeger, J.C.S. Chem. Coram., 579 (1977); (b) C. K. Chiang, C. R. Fincher Jr., Y. W. Park, A. J. Heeger, H. Shirakawa, E. J. Louis, S. C. Gau, and A. G. MacDiarmid, Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1098 (1977);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 11(c).
    C. K. Chiang, S. C. Gau, C. R. Fincher Jr., Y. W. Park, A. G. MacDiarmid, and A. J. Heeger, Appl. Phys. Lett., 33, 18 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 12.
    B. Jachym, H. Sodolski, T. Słupkowski, and R. Zieliński, phys. stat. sol. (a) 24, K159 (1974);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 12a.
    B. Jachym, H. Sodolski, T. Słupkowski, and R. Zieliński, phys. stat. sol. 34, 657 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 13.
    K. Ohkita, Enbi to Polymer 17, 21 (1977).Google Scholar
  17. 14.
    P. Sheng, E. K. Sichel, and J. I. Gittleman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 1197 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 15.
    J. H. Perlstein, J. A. VanAllan, L. C. Isett, and G. A. Reynolds, Annal. N.Y.A.S., 313, 61 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 16.
    S. Yoshimura, Y. Itoh, M. Yasuda, M. Murakami, S. Takahashi, and K. Hasegawa, IEEE Trans. Parts Hybrids Packg. PHP-11, 315 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 17.
    (a) S. Yoshimura, M. Murakami, Y. Itoh, and K. Hasegawa, Chem. Lett., 835 (1972); (b) P. Chaudhari, B. A. Scott, R. B. Laibowitz, Y. Tomkiewicz, and J. B. Torrance, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 439 (1974);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 17(c).
    A. A. Bright, M. J. Cohen, A. F. Garito, and A. J. Heeger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 612 (1975);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 17(d).
    E. E. Simonyi, J. F. Graczyk, and J. B. Torrance, IBM J. Res. Develop. 22, 315 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 18.
    B. A. Scott, F. B. Kaufman, and E. M. Engler, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 98, 4342 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 19.
    (a) F. B. Kaufman, E. M. Engler, D. C. Green, and J. Q. Chambers, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 98, 1596 (1976);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 19(b).
    J. S. Miller and D. Cobb, Science 194, 189 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 20.
    E. M. Engler, V. Y. Merritt, B. A. Scott, and R. H. Skovlin, IBM Tech. Disci. Bull. 18, 4177 (1976).Google Scholar
  27. 21.
    B. A. Scott, S. J. LaPlaca, J. B. Torrance, B. D. Silverman, and B. Weber, Annal N.Y.A.S., 313, 369 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 22.
    E. M. Engler, F. B. Kaufman, and B. A. Scott, U.S. Patent 4,036,648 (1977).Google Scholar
  29. 23.
    J. C. McGroddy and B. A. Scott, U.S. Patent 4,052,272 (1977).Google Scholar
  30. 24.
    W. H. Flygare, G. D. Stucky, and H. Ehrenilich, Report on Mat. Res. Council Conf. One-and Two-Dimensional Conductors. La Jolla, Ca., July 10–11, 1975.Google Scholar
  31. 25.
    J. B. Goodenough, J. Solid State Chem. 12, 148 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 26.
    R. J. Nowak, H. B. Mark, Jr., A. G. MacDiarmid, and D. Weber, J.C.S. Chem. Comm., 9 (1977).Google Scholar
  33. 27.
    A. N. Voulgaropoulos, R. J. Nowak, W. Kutner, and H. B. Mark, Jr., J.C.S. Chem. Comm., 244 (1978).Google Scholar
  34. 28.
    P. Weidenthaler and E. Pelinka, Collect. Czech, Chem. Commun. 34, 1482 (1969).Google Scholar
  35. 29.
    M. Sharp and G. Johnsson, Anal. Chim. Acta. 54, 13 (1971);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 29a.
    M. Sharp, Anal. Chim. Acta. 85, 17 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 30.
    Y. Itoh and S. Yoshimura, J. Electrochem. Soc. 124, 1128 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 31.
    S. Yoshimura and M. Murakami, Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 50, 3153 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 32.
    W. Greatbatch, J. H. Lee, W. Mathias, M. Eldridge, J. M. Moser, and A. A. Schneider, IEEE Trans. Bio-Med. Eng. EME-18, 317 (1971).Google Scholar
  40. 33.
    (a) J. R. Moser, U.S. Patent 3,660,163 (1972); (b) A. A. Schneider, W. Greatbatch, and R. Mead, Proc. Int. Power Sources Conf., 651 (1974).Google Scholar
  41. 34.
    T. Wada, Japan, Kokai 49–56132 (1974).Google Scholar
  42. 35.
    F. Gutmann, A. M. Hermann, and A. Rembaum, J. Electrochem. Soc. 114, 323 (1967);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 35a.
    F. Gutmann, A. M. Hermann, and A. Rembaum, J. Electrochem. Soc. 115, 359 (1968); Japan. Patent 47–30769 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 36.
    B. Scrosati and M. Torroni, Electrochimica Acta 18, 225 (1973);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 36a.
    M. Pampallona, A. Ricci, B. Scrosati, and C. A. Vincent, J. Appl. Electrochem. 6, 269 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 37.
    (a) S. J. LaPlaca, P. W. Corfield, R. Thomas, and B. A. Scott, Solid State Commun. 17, 635 (1975);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 37(b).
    R. J. Warmack, and T. A. Callcott, Phys. Rev. B12, 3336 (1975);Google Scholar
  48. 37(c).
    R. B. Somoano, A. Gupta, V. Hadek, T. Datta, M. Jones, R. Deck, and A. M. Hermann, J. Chem. Phys. 63, 4970 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 38.
    (a) C. C. Isett and E. A. Perez-Albuerne, Solid State Commun. 21, 433 (1977);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 38(b).
    R. B. Somoano, S.P.S. Yen, V. Hedek, S. K. Khanna, M. Movotry, T. Datta, A. M. Hermann, and J. A. Woolam, Phys. Rev. B17, 2853 (1978).Google Scholar
  51. 39.
    J. L. Petersen, C. S. Schramm, D. R. Stojakovic, B. M. Hoffman, and T. J. Marks, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 99, 286 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 40.
    M. Akhtar, J. Kleppinger, A. G. MacDiarmid, J. Milliken, M. J. Moran, C. K. Chiang, M. J. Cohen, A. J. Heeger, and D. L. Peebles, J.C.S. Chem. Comm., 473 (1977).Google Scholar
  53. 41.
    R. R. Heikes and R. W. Ure Jr., Thermoelectricity: Science and Engineering (Interscience Publishers, N.Y., 1967).Google Scholar
  54. 42.
    (a) A. V. Petrov, Yu. G. Nurullaev, R. M. Vlasova, V. V. Kuzina, and A. I. Sherle, Soviet Phys.-Solid State 14, 1594 (1972);Google Scholar
  55. (b).
    M. B. Salamon, J. W. Bray, G. DePasquali, and R. A. Craven, Phys. Rev. B11, 619 (1975).Google Scholar
  56. 43.
    B. Jachym, A. Szumilo, H. Sodolski, and R. Zielinski, Acta Phys. Pol. A50, 125 (1976).Google Scholar
  57. 44.
    M. G. Miles, J. D. Wilson, and M. H. Cohen, U.S. Patent 3,779,814 (1973); M. H. Cohen, M. G. Miles, and J. D. Wilson, U.S. Patent 4,026,905.Google Scholar
  58. 45.
    J. F. Kwak, G. Beni, and P. M. Chaikin, Phys. Rev. B13, 641 (1976);Google Scholar
  59. 45a.
    G. R. Johnson, M. G. Miles, and J. D. Wilson, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 33, 67 (1976);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 45b.
    P. M. Chaikin, J. F. Kwak, R. L. Greene, S. Etemad, and E. M. Engler, Solid State Commun. 19, 1201 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 46.
    G. B. Street, S. Etemad, and R. D. Smith, Annal N.Y.A.S. 313, 737 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 47(a).
    H. Kahlert, Solid State Commun. 17, 1161 (1975);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 47(b).
    M. J. Cohen, P. R. Newman, and A. J. Heeger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 1500 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 48.
    M. J. Cohen and A. J. Heeger, Phys. Rev. B16, 688 (1977).Google Scholar
  65. 49.
    P. Monceau, N. P. Ong, A. M. Portis, A. Meerschaut, and J. Rouxel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 602 (1976);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 49a.
    N. P. Ong and P. Monceau, Phys. Rev. B16, 3443 (1977); N. P. Ong, to be published.Google Scholar
  67. 50.
    C. F. Wahlig, U.S. Patent 3,255,329 (1966); S. Ikeno, H. Mikawa, and M. Yokoyama, Japan. Kokai 52–118,596 (1977).Google Scholar
  68. 51.
    M. Füstöss-Wégner, Thin Solid Films 36, 89 (1976); Proc. 6th Czech. Conf. Elect. Vac. Phys., Bratislava, Czech., Aug. 23–26 (1976) p301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 52.
    H. Futaki, Japan. J. Appl. Phys. 4, 28 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 53.
    E. Andrich, Phy. Tech. Rev. 30, 170 (1969).Google Scholar
  71. 54.
    F. J. Morin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 3, 34 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 55.
    I. Tsubata and N. Takahashi, 10th Biennial Conf. Carbon, CA148 (1971).Google Scholar
  73. 56.
    A. N. Bloch, J. P. Ferraris, D. O. Cowan, and T. O. Poehler, Solid State Commun. 13, 753 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 57.
    S. Etemad, T. Penney, E. M. Engler, B. A. Scott, and P. E. Seiden, Phys. Rev. Lett. 34, 741 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 58.
    Y. Iida, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 1607 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 59.
    M. Murakami and S. Yoshimura, Chem. Lett., 929 (1977).Google Scholar
  77. 60.
    H. Sasaki and A. Watanabe, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 19, 1748 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 61.
    B. Fisher, J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys. 8, 2072 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 62.
    J. J. Andre and G. Weill, Chem. Phys. Lett. 9, 27 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 63.
    H. L. Mandelcorn ed. Non-stoichiometric Compounds (Academic Press, N.Y., 1964).Google Scholar
  81. 64.
    R. S. Somoano, A. Gupta, V. Hadek, M. Novotry, J. Jones, T. Datta, R. Deck, and A. M. Hermann, Phys. Rev. B15, 595 (1977).Google Scholar
  82. 65.
    (a) M. Murakami and S. Yoshimura, Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 48, 157 (1975);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 65(b).
    M. Murakami and S. Yoshimura, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 38, 488 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 66.
    (a) A. Cougrand, S. Flandrois, P. Delhaes, P. Dupuis, D. Chasseau, J. Galtier, and J. L. Miane, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 32, 165 (1976);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 66(b).
    M. A. Abkowitz, A. J. Epstein, C. H. Griffiths, J. S. Miller, and M. L. Slade, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 99, 5304 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 67.
    P. Dupuis, S. Flandrois, P. Delhaes, and C. Coulon, J.C.S. Chem. Comm., 337 (1978).Google Scholar
  87. 68.
    M. S. Whittingham, Science 192, 1126 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 69.
    F. Kanamaru, M. Shimada, M. Koizumi, M. Takano, and T. Takada, J. Solid State Chem. 7, 297 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 70.
    V. M. Koshkin, A. P. Mil’ner, V. V. Kukol’, Yu. R. Zabrodskii, Yu. N. Dinitriev, and F. I. Brintsev, Soviet Phys.-Solid State 18, 354 (1976).Google Scholar
  90. 71.
    L. H. de Jongh and A. R. Miedema, Adv. Phys. 23, 1 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 72.
    E. Farber, Workshop Proc. Sol. Cooling for Building, Los Angeles, Ca., Feb. 6–8 (1974) P. 109.Google Scholar
  92. 73.
    M. Ohmasa, M. Kinoshita, M. Sano, and H. Akamatsu, Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 41, 1998 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 74.
    (a) D. Chasseau, J. Gaultier, C. Hauw, and J. Jaud, C. R. Acad, Sci., Ser. C 276, 661 (1973);Google Scholar
  94. 74b.
    D. Chasseau, J. Gaultier, C. Hauw, and J. Jaud C. R. Acad. Sci., Ser. D 267, 751 (1973);Google Scholar
  95. 74c.
    S. Flandrois, P. Libert, and P. Dupuis, Phys. Stat. Sol (a) 28, 411 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 75.
    G. Mihály, K. Holczer, G. Grüner, and L. D. Kunstelj, Solid State Commun. 19, 1091 (1976);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 75a.
    Y. Matsunaga and T. Tanaka, Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 49, 2713 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 76.
    S. Z. Goldberg, R. Eisenberg, J. S. Miller, and A. J. Epstein, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 98, 5173 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 77.
    G. J. Ashwell, phys. stat. sol. (b) 85, K7 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 78.
    S. Drosdziok and M. Engbrodt, Solid State Commun. 17, 1339 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susumu Yoshimura
    • 1
  1. 1.Matsushita Research Institute Tokyo, Inc.Ikuta, Tama-ku, Kawasaki 214Japan

Personalised recommendations