Effects of Parental Risk and Prenatal Stress on Pregnancy Outcome

  • R. A. Holm
Part of the Advances in Primatology book series (AIPR)


The general hypothesis that anomalies in the environment profoundly affect the conceptus has received extensive support from teratological studies throughout this century (Stockard, 1910; Hale, 1935; Joffe, 1969). Sontag (1941) was one of the first to extend this hypothesis to include variations in emotional status during pregnancy. Thompson (1957) found that administering maternal emotional traumas during pregnancy resulted in increased emotionality in newborn rat pups. His report was followed by a number of other rodent studies, including a wide range of stress and behavioral measures. Most manipulations produced changes in the offsprings’ behavior; however, the specificity and directionality of the effects have not been consistent.


Pregnancy Outcome Fetal Heart Rate Prenatal Stress Pigtail Macaque Poor Pregnancy Outcome 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. A. Holm
    • 1
  1. 1.Child Development and Mental Retardation Center and Regional Primate Research CenterUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA

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