Effects of Parental Risk and Prenatal Stress on Pregnancy Outcome
The general hypothesis that anomalies in the environment profoundly affect the conceptus has received extensive support from teratological studies throughout this century (Stockard, 1910; Hale, 1935; Joffe, 1969). Sontag (1941) was one of the first to extend this hypothesis to include variations in emotional status during pregnancy. Thompson (1957) found that administering maternal emotional traumas during pregnancy resulted in increased emotionality in newborn rat pups. His report was followed by a number of other rodent studies, including a wide range of stress and behavioral measures. Most manipulations produced changes in the offsprings’ behavior; however, the specificity and directionality of the effects have not been consistent.
KeywordsPregnancy Outcome Fetal Heart Rate Prenatal Stress Pigtail Macaque Poor Pregnancy Outcome
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Hale, F. Relation of vitamin A to anophthalmos in pigs. Amer. J. Ophthal. 18: 1087–1093, 1935.Google Scholar
- Joffe, J. M. Prenatal determinants of behavior. International Series of Monographs in Experimental Psychology, London: Pergamon Press Ltd., 1969.Google Scholar
- McDonald, R. L. and Christakos, A. C. Relationship of emotional adjustment during pregnancy to obstetric complications. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynec. 86: 341–348, 1963.Google Scholar
- Myers, R. E. Production of fetal asphyxia by maternal psychological stress. Pp. 3–15 in: Progress in EPH-Gentosis, E. T. Rippman, H. Stamm, H. P. McEwan, and P. Howie (Eds.), Basel: Organization Gestosis-Press, 1975.Google Scholar
- Sackett, G. P., Holm, R. A., Davis, A. E., and Fahrenbruch, C. E. Prematurity and low birth weight in pigtail macaques: Incidence, prediction, and effects on infant development. Pp. 189–205 in: Proceedings of the 5th Congress of the International Primatological Society, Tokyo: Japan Science Press, 1975.Google Scholar
- Sontag, L. W. Significance of fetal environmental differences. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynec. 42: 996–1003, 1941.Google Scholar