Monitoring and Apnea Alarm for Infant Primates: Practical and Research Applications

  • C. W. Kindt
  • F. A. Spelman
Part of the Advances in Primatology book series (AIPR)


The need for a remote respiration monitor became apparent with the increasing number of premature, low-birth-weight, and maternally rejected infant monkeys handled by the Infant Primate Research Laboratory at the University of Washington. Of primary interest was the development of a safe, reliable, contactless device that would free laboratory personnel from the tedious duty of extended observation of one or more acutely ill infants. As a result of this need a radar respiration monitor was developed (Spelman, Kindt, Bowden, Sackett, Spillane, and Blattman, 1975). Initially the monitor was intended to signal prolonged and frequent apneas in the premature infants. However, the radar respiration unit rapidly demonstrated its ability to measure subtle respiration patterns in a variety of disease states as well. We have monitored respiration patterns of infant monkeys that exhibited one or more of the following conditions: prematurity, low birth weight, pneumonia, hyperbilirubinemia, hyaline membrane disease, severe hypothermia, complications arising from post-operative recovery from anesthesia, and trauma. Use of the radar monitor has led to earlier therapeutic intervention and treatment of infants with suspected respiratory compromise than was previously possible through simple observation.


Premature Infant Breathing Pattern Human Infant Respiration Pattern Periodic Breathing 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bryan, M. H. and Bryan, A. C. Response of infants to respiratory loads. The First Annual Workshop of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Grantees and Contractors. NICHHD Perinatal Biology and Infant Mortality Branch. Publication #RO 1 HD 07826–02, 1977.Google Scholar
  2. Cherniack, N. S. and Longobardo, G. S. Cheyne-Stokes breathing: An instability in physiologic control. New Engl. J. Med. 288: 952–957, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chernick, V., Heldrich, F., and Avery, M. E. Periodic breathing of premature infants. J. Pediat. 64: 330–340, 1964.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Daily, W. J. R., Klaus, M., and Meyer, H. B. P. Apnea in premature infants: Monitoring, incidence, heart rate changes, and an effect of environmental temperature. Pediatrics 43: 510–517, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Dening, J. and Washburn, A. H. Respiration in infancy. Amer. J. Dis. Child. 49: 108–124, 1935.Google Scholar
  6. Flanagan, W. J., Rowe, J. C., Hodson, W. A., and Woodrum, D. E. Apnea immediately following apnea in premature infants. Ped. Res. Abstract #969, April, 1977.Google Scholar
  7. French, J., Morgan, B., and Guntheroth, W. Infant monkeys: A model for crib death. Amer. J. Dis. Child. 123: 480–484, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Hathorn, M. K. S. The rate and depth of breathing in new-born infants in different sleep states. J. Physiol. 243: 101–113, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Johnson, J. W., Salem, E., and Holzman, G. Experimental induction of respiratory distress in fetal and newborn lambs. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynec. 80: 481–497, 1964.Google Scholar
  10. McGinty, D. and Harper, R. M. Sleep physiology and SIDS: Animal and human studies. In: SIDS, 1974. Proceedings of the Francis E. Camps International Symposium on Sudden and Unexyected Deaths in Infancy, R. R. Robinson (Ed.), Canadian Foundation for the Study of Infant Deaths, 1974.Google Scholar
  11. Prechtl, H. F. R., Akiyama, Y., Zinkin, P., and Grant, D. K. Polygraphic studies of the full-term newborn. I. Technical aspects and qualitative analysis. Pp. 1–21 in: Studies in Infancy, R. Mac Keith and M. Bax (Eds.), London: Heinemann Medical, 1968.Google Scholar
  12. Ray, C. G. and Peterson, D. R. Surveillance of newborn Macaca nemestrina in a breeding colony for SIDS and viral infection: Joint report for U. of Washington Regional Primate Research Center and Children’s Orthopedic Hospital and Medical Center, 1975. ( Unpublished)Google Scholar
  13. Rigatto, H. and Brady, J. P. Periodic breathing and apnea in preterm infants. I. Evidence for hypoventilation possibly due to central respiratory depression. Pediatrics 50: 202–218, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Rowe, J. C., Flanagan, W. J., Hodson, W. A., and Woodrum, D. E. The relationship between apnea and heart rate in premature infants. Ped. Res., Abstract #1019, April, 1977.Google Scholar
  15. Shannon, D. C., Gotay, F., Stein, I. M., Rogers, M. C., Todres, I.D., and Moylan, F. M. B. Prevention of apnea and bradycardia in low-birthweight infants. Pediatrics 55: 589–594, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Spelman, F. A., Kindt, C. W., Bowden, D. M., Sackett, G. P., Spillane, J. W., and Blattman, D. A. Remote measurement of respiration in infant primates using an x-band Doppler radar. USNC/URST Annual Meeting, Program and Abstracts, B26–32, 1975.Google Scholar
  17. Steinschneider, A. and Rabuzzi, D. D. Apnea and airway obstruction during feeding and sleep. Laryngoscope 86: 1359–1366, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Steinschneider, A. Possible cardiopulmonary mechanisms in sudden infant death syndrome. In: Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, A. B. Bergman, J. B. Beckwith, and C. G. Ray (Eds.), Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1970.Google Scholar
  19. Taylor, E. M., Sutton, D., and Lindeman, R. C. Dimensions of the infant monkey upper airway. Growth 40: 69–74, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. W. Kindt
    • 1
  • F. A. Spelman
    • 1
  1. 1.Regional Primate Research CenterUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations