Stimuli with Biological Significance

  • Victor S. Johnston
Part of the The Downstate Series of Research in Psychiatry and Psychology book series (DSRPP, volume 2)


Life lives on negative entropy (6). It is only by the exploitation of the spatial and temporal orderliness in their environment that organisms can survive in a world governed by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Lorenz (6) has eloquently stated that [a living system] „very much like a prairie fire greedily gathers energy and, in a positive feedback cycle, becomes able to gather more energy, and to do so the quicker, the more it has already acquired.“ Thus, the biological luxury of animal life can only exist at the expense of those heterotrophs who, until recently, were the only life forms to make efficient use of the virtually limitless and distributed energy source supplied by the sun.


Subjective Probability Correct Rejection Uncertainty Reduction Subjective Probability Distribution Subjective Probability Estimate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Donchin, E. A multivariate approach to the analysis of average evoked potentials. IEEE Transactions in Biomedical Engineering, 1966,13, 131–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Donchin, E., and Cohen, L. Average evoked potentials and intramodality selective attention. Electroencephalo graphy and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1967,19, 325–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Friedman, D., Hakaren G., Sutton, S., and Fleiss, J.L. Effects of Stimulus Uncertainty on the Pupillary Dilation Response and the Vertex Evoked Potential. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1973,34, 475–484.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Haughney, G.V. Pupillary Responses as a Function of Prediction and Outcome. Unpublished Masters Thesis, New Mexico State University, September, 1975.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    John, E.R. Mechanisms of Memory. Academic Press, New York and London, 1967.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lorenz, K. Life as a Knowledge Process. In K.H. Pribram (Ed) On the Biology of Learning. Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc. New York: 1969.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ritter, W. and Vaughan, H.G. Average Evoked Responses in Vigilance and Discrimination: A Reassessment. Science 1969,164, 326–328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rowland, V. Steady-Potential Phenomena of Cortex. In Quarton, G.C., Melnechuk, T. and Schmitt, F.O. (Eds) The Neurosciences; a Study Program. The Rockefeller University Press, New York: 1967.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sokolov, E.N. Perception and the Conditioned Reflex. Pergamon Press, New York: 1963.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Squires, K.C., Squires, N.K. and Hillyard, S.A. Decision Related Cortical Potentials during an Auditory Signal Detection Task with Cued Observation Intervals. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. 1975,1(3), 268–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Squires, K.D., Wickens, C., Squires, N.K. and Donchin, E. The Effects of Stimulus Sequence on the Waveform of the Cortical Event-Related Potential, Science 1976,1931142–1145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Squires, K.C., Donchin, E., Herning, R.I. and McCarthy, G. On the influence of Task Relevance and Stimulus Probability on Event-Related-Potential Components. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1977,42, 1–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sutton, S., Braren, M., Zubin, J. and John, E.R. Evoked-Potential Correlates of Stimulus Uncertainty. Science, 1965,150, 1187–1188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sutton, S., Tueting P., Zubin, J. and John, E.R. Information Delivery and the Sensory Evoked Potential. Sciences, 1967,155, 1436–1439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tueting, P., Sutton, S. and Zubin, J. Quantitiative Evoked Potential Correlates of the Probability of Events. Psychophysiology, 1971,7(3), 385–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Victor S. Johnston
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Engineering PsychologyNew Mexico State UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations