The Emergence of Emotions and the Development of Consciousness in Infancy

  • Carroll E. Izard


The conceptual framework for this chapter is differential emotions theory (Izard, 1959, 1960, 1971, 1972, 1977; Tomkins, 1962, 1963). The theory assumes a limited set of discrete fundamental emotions, each having unique motivational properties that derive from the distinct quality of consciousness resulting from the activation of the specific emotion. The neural substrate, phenomenological quality, and facial expression of a fundamental emotion are encoded in the genes, but learning and experience account for the majority of the causes and complex behavioral consequences of emotions. The emotions constitute the principal motivation system for human beings, and the emotions interact with each other and with perceptual and cognitive processes to form a virtually limitless number of motivational phenomena that characterize the adult personality.


Young Infant Early Infancy Attentive State Anger Expression Affective Experience 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carroll E. Izard
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of DelawareNewarkUSA

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