Advertisement

Stress-Induced Behavior: Chemotherapy without Drugs

  • Seymour M. Antelman
  • Anthony R. Caggiula

Abstract

The effects of stress on behavior can be grouped into three general categories: (1) mild stress can induce or potentiate a variety of behaviors such as eating, aggression, and sexual behavior; (2) more severe stress may disrupt behavior by making it repetitious, less finely tuned to the environment and stereotyped; (3) severe stress can also totally suppress behavior. These effects of stress, which have been reported to occur in virtually all species, including man, may represent an attempt by the organism to reduce or eliminate the deleterious effects of the stress. In this sense, these behaviors represent a form of self-therapy.

Keywords

Sexual Behavior Electric Shock Autistic Child Zebra Finch Stereotyped Pattern 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abenson, M. H. EEGs in chronic schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry,1970, 116, 421–425PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aghajanian, G. K. Discussion: Localization, uptake and metabolism of serotonin. In J. Barchas & E. Usdin (Eds.), Serotonin and behavior. London: Academic, 1973Google Scholar
  3. Aghajanian, G. K., & Asher, I. M. Histochemical fluorescence of raphe neurons: Selec-tive enhancement by tryptophan. Science, 1971, 172, 1159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Angrist, B., Sathananthan, G., & Gershon, S. Behavioral effects of l-dopa in schizophrenic patients. Psychopharmacologia, 1972, 27, 249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Antelman, S. M., & Caggiula, A. R. Norepinephrine-dopamine interactions and behavior. Science,1977, 195, 646.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Antelman, S. M., & Caggiula, A. R. Tails of stress-related behavior: A neuropharmacological model. In: I. Hanin & E. Usdin (Eds.), Animal models in psychiatry and neurology. Oxford & New York: Pergamon, 1977.Google Scholar
  7. Antelman, S. M., & Rowland, N. E. Hyperphagia in normal rats and recovery of behavioral deficits in rats with lateral hypothalamic lesions: Stress-induced effects related to the nigrostriatal dopamine system. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1975, 37(1), 81.Google Scholar
  8. Antelman, S. M., & Szechtman, H. Tail pinch induces eating in sated rats which appears to depend on nigrostriatal dopamine. Science, 1975, 189, 731–733.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Antelman, S. M., Herndon, J. G., Caggiula, A. R., & Shaw, D. H. Dopamine receptor blockade: Prevention of shock-activated sexual behavior in naive rats. Psychopharmacological Bulletin, 1975, 11, 45.Google Scholar
  10. Antelman, S. M., Szechtman, H., Chin, P., & Fisher, A. E. Tail pinch-induced eating, gnawing and licking behavior in rats: dependence on the nigrostriatal dopamine system. Brain Research,1975, 99, 319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Antelman, S. M., Szechtman, H., Rowland, N. E., & Caggiula, A. R. Tails of eating, drinking, sex and maternal behavior: A nigrostriatal dopamine story. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts, 1975 (396), 254.Google Scholar
  12. Antelman, S. M., Caggiula, A. R., Edwards, D. J., & Rowland, N. E. Tail pinch stress reverses amphetamine anorexia. Neuroscience Abstracts, 1976, 2, 845.Google Scholar
  13. Antelman, S. M., Rowland, N. E., & Fisher, A. E. Stress-induced recovery from lateral hypothalamic aphagia. Brain Research,1976, 102, 346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Antelman, S. M., Szechtman, H., Chin, P., & Fisher, A. E. Inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase but not dopamine-/3-hydroxylase facilitates the action of behaviorally ineffective doese of neuroleptics. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 1976, 28, 66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Antelman, S. M., Eichler, A. J., & Fisher, A. E. Site specific effects of chronic neuroleptic administration on brain-stimulation reward. Procedings of the XXVII Congress of Physiological Sciences 12, 1977, 687.Google Scholar
  16. Antelman, S. M., Caggiula, A. R., Black, C., & Edwards, D. J. Stress reverses the anorexia induced by amphetamine and methylphenidate, but not fenfluramine. Brain Research,1978, 143, 580–585.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Azrin, N. H., Hutchinson, R. R., & Hake, D. F. Pain-induced fighting in the squirrel monkey. Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1963, 6,620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Azrin, N. H., Hutchinson, R. R., & Hake, D. F. Attack, avoidance and escape reactions to aversive shock. Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1967, 10, 131–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Azrin, N. H., Hutchinson, R. R., & Sallery, R. D. Pain-aggression toward inanimate objects. Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior. 1964, 7, 223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Baker, J. W., & Schaie, K. W. Effects of aggression “alone” or “with another” on physiological and psychological arousal. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1969, 12, 80–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bandura, A. Aggression: A social learning analysis. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1973.Google Scholar
  22. Barfield, R. J., & Sachs, B. D. Sexual behavior: Stimulation by painful electric shock to the skin in male rats. Science, 1968, 161, 392.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Barnett, S. A. 1958, Physiological effects of “social stress” in wild rats: I. Adrenal cortex. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 1958, 3, 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Beach, F. A. Analysis of factors involved in the arousal, maintenance, and manifestation of sexual excitement in male animals. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1942, 4, 173–198Google Scholar
  25. Beach, F. A. 1947, A review of physiological and psychological studies of sexual behavior in mammals. Physiological Reviews, 1947, 27, 240–307.Google Scholar
  26. Beamer, W., Bermant, G., & Clegg, M. Copulatory behavior of the ram, Ovis aries II: Factors affecting copulatory satiation. Animal Behavior, 1969, 17, 706–711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Beck, A. T. The diagnosis and management of depression. Philadelphia: The University of Pennsylvania Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  28. Beck, A. T., Ward, C. H., Mendelson, M., Mock, J. E., & Erbauch, J. K. Reliability of psychiatric diagnoses: 2. A study of consistency of clinical judgements and ratings. American Journal of Psychology, 1962, 119, 351–357.Google Scholar
  29. Bergman, G. Der Steinwalzer, Arenaria i. interpres (L.) in seiner Beziehung zur Umwelt. Acta Zoologica Fennica, 1946, 47, 1.Google Scholar
  30. Berkson, G. Abnormal stereotyped motor acts. In J. Zubin & H. F. Hunt (Eds.), Compara-tive psychopathology—animal and human. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1967Google Scholar
  31. Bermant, G., Lott, D., & Anderson, L. Temporal characteristics of the coolidge effect in male copulatory behavior. Journal of Comparative Physiological Psychology, 1968, 65, 447–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Bingham, H. C. Sex development in apes. Comparative Psychology Monographs, 1928, 5, 1–161.Google Scholar
  33. Bleuler, E. Dementia praecox or the group of schizophrenics (J. Zinkin, Trans.). International University Press, New York, 1950.Google Scholar
  34. Boshka, S. C., Wiesman, H. M., & Thor, D. H. A technique for inducing aggression in rats utilizing morphine withdrawal. Psychological Record, 1966, 16, 541–543.Google Scholar
  35. Brown, G. W., Binley, J. L. T., & Wing, J. K. Influence of family life on the course of schizophrenic disorders: a replication, British Journal of Psychology, 1972, 121, 241–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Bruch, H. The importance of overweight. New York: Norton, 1957.Google Scholar
  37. Bruch, H. Eating disorders. New York: Basic Books, 1973.Google Scholar
  38. Buchsbaum, M. Average evoked response augmenting/reducing in schizophrenia and affective disorders. In D. X. Freedman (Ed.), Biology of the major psychoses: A comparative analysis. New York: Raven, 1975, pp. 129–142.Google Scholar
  39. Caggiula, A. R. Shock-elicited copulation and aggression in male rats. Journal of Comparative Physiology, 1972, 80, 393.Google Scholar
  40. Caggiula, A. R., & Eibergen R. Copulation of virgin male rats evoked by painful peripheral stimulation. Journal of Physiological Psychology,1969, 69, 414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Caggiula, A. R., & Vlahoulis, M. Modifications in the copulatory performance of male rats by repeated peripheral shock, Behavioral Biology, 1974, 11, 269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Caggiula, A. R., Shaw, D. H., Antelman, S. M., & Edwards, D. J. Interactive effects of brain catecholamines and variations in sexual and non-sexual arousal on copulatory behavior of male rats. Brain Research, 1976, 111, 321.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Calhoun, J. B. The ecology and sociology of the norway rat. Public Health Service Publication No. 1008, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1962.Google Scholar
  44. Chance, M. R. A. An interpretation of some agonistic postures: the role of ‘cut-offs’ acts and postures. Symposium of the Zoological Society of London, 1962, 8, 71–89.Google Scholar
  45. Conner, R. L., Vernikos-Danellis, J., & Levine, S. Stress, fighting and neuroendocrine function. Nature, 1971, 234, 564.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Costa, E., & Garattini, S. Amphetamines and related compounds. New York: Raven, 1970.Google Scholar
  47. Crowley, W. R., Porolow, H. B., & Ward, O. B., JR.. From dud to stud: Copulatory behavior elicited through conditional arousal in sexually inactive male rats. Physiology and Behavior, 1973, 10,391–394.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Doob, A. N., & Wood, L. Catharsis and aggression: Effects of annoyance and retaliation on aggressive behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1972, 22, 156–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Eichelman, B., Orenberg, E., Seagraves, E., & Barcras, J. Social setting: Influence on the induction of brain cAMP in response to electric shock in the rat. Neuroscience Abstracts,1976, 860.Google Scholar
  50. Ellinwood, E. H. Amphetamine psychosis: A multidimensional process. Seminars in Psychiatry, 1969, Vol. 1, No. 2 (May), 208–226.Google Scholar
  51. Ellinwood, E. H., JR. Behavioral and EEG changes in the amphetamine model of psychoses. In E. Usdin (Ed.), Neuropsychopharmacology of monoamines and the regulatory enzymes. New York: Raven, 1974.Google Scholar
  52. Ellison, G. D., Sorenson, C. A., & Jacobs, B. L. Two feeding syndromes following surgical isolation of the hypothalamus in rats. Journal of Comparative Pysiological Psychology,1970, 70, 173–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Exline, R. V. Visual interaction: The glances of power and preference. In J. K. Cole (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, 1971.Google Scholar
  54. Fentress, J. C. Development of grooming in mice with amputated forelimbs. Science,1973, 179, 704–705.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Fentress, J. C. (Ed.), Simpler networks and behavior. Sunderland, Mass.: Sinauer Assoc., 1976.Google Scholar
  56. Fibiger, H. C., & Miller, J. J. Raphe projections to the substantia nigra: A possible mechanism for interaction between dopaminergic and serotonergic systems. Neuroscience Abstracts, 1976, 2, 487.Google Scholar
  57. Fibiger, H. D., Carter, D. A., & Phillips, A. G. Decreased intracranial self-stimulation after neuroleptics or 6-hydroxydopamine: Evidence for mediation by motor deficits rather than by reduced reward, Psychopharmacology,1976, 47, 21–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Fisher, A. E. Effects of stimulus variation on sexual satiation in the male rat. Journal of Physiological Psychology, 1962, 55, 614–620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Fuxe, K., Butcher, L., & Engel, J. DL-5-hydroxytryptophan induced changes in central monoamine neurons after decarboxylase inhibition. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology,1971, 23, 450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Gambaro, S., & Rabin, A. I. Diastolic blood pressure responses following direct and displaced aggression after anger arousal in high-and low-guilt subjects. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1969, 12, 87–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Glucksman, M. L. Psychiatric observations on obesity. Advances Psychosomatic Medicine,1972, 7, 194.Google Scholar
  62. Goldfoot, D. A., & Baum, M. J. Initiation of mating behavior in developing male rats following peripheral electric shock. Physiological Behavior, 1972, 8, 857.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Grahame-Smith, D. G. Metabolic compartmentation of brain monoamines. In R. Bahzas & J. E. Gremer (Eds.), Metabolic compartmentation in the brain, New York: Wiley, 1971. (Second ed.).Google Scholar
  64. Gray, D. F. Immunology: An outline of basic principles, problems and theories concerning the immunological behavior of man and animals. New York: American Elsevier, 1970. (Second ed.).Google Scholar
  65. Hamburger, W. W. Emotional aspects of obesity, Medical Clinics of North America, 1951, 35, 483.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Hard, E., & Larsson, Effects of mounts without intromission upon sexual behavior in male rats, Animal Behaviour, 1968, 16,538–540.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Harris, A. Sensory deprivation and schizophrenia, Journal of Mental Science, 1959, 105, 235–237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Herman C. P., & Polivy, J., Anxiety, restraint and eating behavior, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1975, 84, 666–672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hill, C. A. Corprophagy in apes. International Zoo Yearbook, 1966, 6, 251–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hinde, R. The behaviour of the great tit (parus major) and other related species. Behaviour Supplement, 1952, 2, 1.Google Scholar
  71. Hollander, X. The Happy Hooker. New York: Dell, 1972.Google Scholar
  72. Hokanson, J. E., & Shetler, S. The effect of overt aggression on physiological arousal level. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1961, 63, 446–448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hornykiewicz, O. Brain monoamines and parkinsonism. In B. D. Bernard (Ed.), Aminergic hypotheses of behavior: Reality or cliche? NIDA Research Monograph Series 3, Maryland, 1975, pp. 13–21.Google Scholar
  74. Hutt, S. J. An ethological analysis of autistic behavior. In H. M. Van Pragg (Ed.), On the origin of schizophrenia psychoses. Amsterdam: De Erven Bohn, B.V., 1975.Google Scholar
  75. Hutt, C., & Hutt, S. J. Effect of environmental complexity upon stereotyped behaviours in children, Animal Behaviour, 1965, 13, 1–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Hutt, C., & Hutt, S. J. The biological study of childhood autism. Journal of Special Education, 1969, 3, 3–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Hutt, C., & Hutt, S. J. Stereotypies and their relation to arousal: A study of autistic children. In S. J. Hutt & C. Hutt (Eds.), Behavior studies in psychiatry. Oxford: Perga-mon, 1970.Google Scholar
  78. Innes, I. R., & Nickerson, M. Norepinephrine, epinephrine, and the sympathomimetic amines. In L. S. Goodman and A. Gilman (Eds.), The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. New York: Macmillan, 1970, p. 477.Google Scholar
  79. Jacobs, B. L., & Farel, P. B. Motivated behaviors produced by increased arousal in the presence of goal objects. Physiology and Behavior, 1971, 6, 473–476.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Janssen, P. A. J. The pharmacology of haloperidol. International Journal of Neuropsychiatry, 1967, 3, 10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Janowsky, D. S., El-Yousel, M. K., Davis, J. M., & Sekerke, H. J. Provocation of schizophrenic symptoms by intravenous methyl-phenidate. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1973, 28, 185–191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kanner, L. Autistic disturbances of autistic contact. Nervous Child, 1943, 2, 217–250Google Scholar
  83. Kaplan, H. S. The new sex therapy. New York: Bruner/Mazel, 1974.Google Scholar
  84. Kempf, E. J. The social and sexual behavior of infrahuman primates with some comparable facts in human behavior, Psychoanalytic Review, 1917, 4, 127–154.Google Scholar
  85. Kornetsky, C., & Eliasson, M. Reticular stimulation and chlorpromazine: An animal model for schizophrenic overarousal. Science, 1969, 165, 1273–1274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Kraepelin, E. Dementia praecox and paraphrenia. Edinburgh: E. and S. Livingstone, 1919Google Scholar
  87. Krauthamer, G. M. Catecholamines in behavior and sensorimotor integration: The neos-triatal system. In A. J. Friedhoff (Ed.), Catecholamines and behavior, Vol. 1. New York: Plenum, 1975, pp. 59–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Konecni, V. J. Annoyance, type and duration of postannoyance activity and aggression: The “cathartic effect”. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1975, 104, 76–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Konecni, V. J. & Doos, A. N. Catharsis through displacement aggression. Journal of Personality and social Psychology, 1972, 23, 379–387.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Kupfermann, I. Eating behavior induced by sounds. Nature, 1964, 201, 324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Larsson, K. Conditioning and sexual behavior in the male albino rat. Acta Psychological Gothoburgensia,1956, 1, 1–269.Google Scholar
  92. Larsson, K. Non-specific stimulation and sexual behavior in the male rat. Behaviour,1963, 20, 110–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. van Lawick-Goodall, J. Behavior of free-living chimpanzees of the Gombe Stream area. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1968, 40, 175.Google Scholar
  94. Leff, J. P. Life events and maintenance therapy in schizophrenic relapse. British Journal of Psychiatry, 1973, 123, 659–660.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Le Magnen, J. Stress et obésité. La Recherche, 1976, 7, 777.Google Scholar
  96. Leon, G. R. & Chamberlain, K. Emotional arousal, eating patterns and body image as differential factors associated with varying success in maintaining a weight loss. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1973a, 40, 474–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Leon, G. R., & Chamberlain, K. Comparison of daily eating habits and emotional states of overweight persons successful or unsuccessful in maintaining a weight loss. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1973b, 41, 108–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Levy, D. M. On the problem of movement restraint: Tics, stereotyped movements, hyperactivity. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 1944, 14, 644–671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Makkink, G. F. An attempt at an ethogram of the European Avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta L.) with ethological and psychological remarks. Ardea, 1936, 25, 1.Google Scholar
  100. Malsbury, C. W. & Pfaff, D. W. Neural and hormonal determinants of mating behavior in adult male rats. A review. In L. V. DiCara (Ed.), Limbic and autonomic nervous system research. New York: Plenum, 1975.Google Scholar
  101. Marshall, J. F., Richardson, J. S., & Teitelbaum, P. Nigrostriatal bundle damage and the lateral hypothalamic syndrome. Journal of Comparative Physiological Psychology, 1974, 87, 808–830.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Mason, W. Early social deprivation in the nonhuman primates: Implications for human behavior. In D. C. Blass (Ed.), Environmental influences. New York: Rockefeller Foundation & Russell Sage Foundation, 1968, pp. 70–100.Google Scholar
  103. Matthysse, S. W. The role of dopamine in schizophrenia. In E. Usdin, D.A. Hamburg, & J. D. Barchas (Eds.), Neuroregulators and psychiatric disorders. New York: Oxford University Press, 1977a, pp. 3–13.Google Scholar
  104. Matthysse, S. W. Dopamine and selective attention. In E. Costa & G. L. Gessa (Eds.), Nonstriatal dopamenergic neurons. New York: Raven Press, 1977b, pp. 667–689Google Scholar
  105. Mcdonald, N. Living with schizophrenia. Canadian Medical Association Journal,1960, 82, 218–221.Google Scholar
  106. Mckenna, R. J. Some effects of anxiety level and food cues on the eating behavior of obese and normal subjects. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1972, 22, 311–319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Mednick, S. A., & Schulsinger, F. Some premorbid characteristics related to breakdown in children with schizophrenic mothers. In D. Rosenthal & S. S. Kefy (Eds.), The transmission of schizophrenia. London: Pergamon, 1968, pp. 267–291.Google Scholar
  108. Meehl, M. M., & Cromwell, R. L. The effect of brief sensory deprivation and sensory stimulation on the cognitive functioning of chronic schizophrenics. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1969, 148, 586–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Meltzer, H. Y., & Stahl, S. M. The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia: A review. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 1976, 2, 19–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Menzel, E. W. The effects of cumulative experience on responses to novel objects in young isolation-reared chimpanzees. Behaviour,1963, 21, 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Meyer, J. E., & Pudel, V. Experimental studies on food-intake in obese and normal weight subjects. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 1972, 16, 305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Miller, R. E., Mirsky, I. A., Caul, W. F., & Sakata, T. Hyperphagia and polydipsia in socially isolated rhesus monkeys. Science,1969, 165, 1027–1028.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Mitchell, G., Ruppenthal, G. C., Raymond, E. J., & Harlow, H. F. Long term effects of multiparous and primiparous monkey mother rearing. Child Development, 1966, 37,781–791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Morden, B., Conner, R., Mitchell, G., Dement, W., & Levine, S. Effects of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation on shock-induced fighting. Physiology and Behavior, 1968, 3, 425–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Morris, D. The reproductive behaviour of the zebra finch (Poephila guttata), with special reference to pseudo female behaviour and displacement activities. Behaviour, 1954, 6, 271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Moyer, K. E. Kinds of aggression and their physiological basis. Committee in Behavioral Biology, 1968, 2, 65–87.Google Scholar
  117. Ng, L.K.Y., Chase, T. N., Colburn, R. W., & Kopin, I. J. Release of 3H-dopamine by 5-L-hydroxytryptophan. Brain Research,1972, 45, 499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. O’kelly, L. W., & Steckle, L. C. A note on long enduring emotional response in the rat. Journal of Psychology, 1939, 8, 125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Pickwell, G. B. The prairie horned lark. Transactions of the Academy of Science of St. Louis, 1931, 27, 1.Google Scholar
  120. Raber, H. Analyse des Balzverhaltens eines domestizierten Truthahnes (Meleagris), Behaviour, 1948, 1, 81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Randrup, A., & Munkvad, I. Pharmacology and physiology of stereotyped behavior. In S. Kety & S. Matthysse (Eds.), Catecholamines and their enzymes in the neuropathology of schizophrenia. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 1974, 11, 1.Google Scholar
  122. Robbins, T. W., Phillips, A. G., & Sahakian, B. J. The effects of chlordiazepoxide on tail-pinch induced eating in rats. Pharmacology,Biochemistry, and Behavior, 1977, 6, 297–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Roberts, E. The y-aminobutyric acid system and schizophrenia. In E. Usdin, D. A. Hamburg & J. D. Barchas (Eds.), Neuroregulators and psychiatric disorders. New York: Oxford University Press, 1977, pp. 347–357.Google Scholar
  124. Rowland, N. E., & Antelman, S. M. Stress-induced hyperphagia and obesity in rats. A possible model for understanding human obesity. Science, 1976, 191, 310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Rutter, M. The description and classification of infantile autism. In D. W. Churchill, G. D. Alpern, & M. K. DeMyer (Eds.), Infantile autism. Springfield, Ill.: Thomas, 1971.Google Scholar
  126. Sachs, B. D., & Barfield, R. J. Copulatory behavior of male rats given intermittent electric shocks: Theoretical implications. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1974, 83, 607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Sahakian, B. J., & Robbins, T. W. Isolation rearing enhances tail pinch induced oral behavior in rats. Physiology and Behavior, 1977, 18, 530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Scatton, B., Glowinski, J., & Julou, L. Dopamine metabolism in the mesolimbic and mesoco-tical dopaminergic systems after single or repeated administrations of neuroleptics. Brain Research,1976, 109, 184–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Schacter, S. Obesity and eating. Science, 1965, 161, 751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Schein, M. W., & Hale, E. Stimuli eliciting sexual behavior. In F. Beach (Ed.), Sex and behavior. New York: Wiley, 1965, pp. 440–482.Google Scholar
  131. Schwab, R. S. Akinesia paradoxica. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology,1972, 31, 87–92.Google Scholar
  132. Selye, H. Stress without distress. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1914, 171.Google Scholar
  133. Shakow, D. Some observations on the psychology (and some fewer, on the biology) of schizophrenia. The Journal of Nervous and Mental disease, 1971, 153(5), 300–316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Sharma, O. P., & Hays, R. L. Increasing copulatory behavior in ageing male rats with an electrical stimulus. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 1974, 39, 111–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Siegal, P. S., & Brantley, J. J. The relationship of emotionality to the consummatory response of eating. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1951, 42, 304–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Silverman, J. Percephial and neurophysiological anaogues of “experience” in schizo-phrenic and LSD reactions. In D. V. S. Sankar (Ed.), Schizophrenia: Current concepts and research. New York: PJD Publications, Ltd., 1969, pp. 182–208.Google Scholar
  137. Silverstone, T. Anorectic drugs. In J. T. Silverstone (Ed.), Obesity: Pathogenesis and management. Acton, Mass.: Publishing Sciences Group, 1975, p. 193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Snyder, S. Catecholamines as mediators of drug effects in schizophrenia. In F. O. Schmitt & F. G. Worden (Eds.), The neurosciences: Third study program. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, 1974, pp. 721–732.Google Scholar
  139. Snyder, S. H., Banerjee, S. P., Yamamura, H. I., & Greenberg, D. Drugs, neuro-transmitters and schizophrenia. Science, 1974, 184, 12–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Sterritt, G. M. Inhibition and facilitation of eating by electric shock. Journal of Comparative Physiological Psychology, 1962, 55, 226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Sterritt, G. M. Inhibition and facilitation of eating by electric shock, III. Psychonomic Science, 1965, 2, 319–320.Google Scholar
  142. Stolk, J. M., & Hanlon, D. P. Inhibition of brain dopamine-hydroxylase- activity by methimazole. Life Sciences,1973, 12, 417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Stolk, J. M., Conner, R. L., Levine, S., & Barchas, J. D. Brain norepinephrine metabolism and shock induced fighting behavior in rats: Differential effects of shock and fighting on the neurochemical response to a common footshock stimulus. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 1974, 190(2), 193–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Stone, A. A. Consciousness: altered levels in blind retarded children. Psychosomatic Medicine,1964, 24, 14–19.Google Scholar
  145. Stone, C. P., & Ferguson, L. W. Temporal relationships in the copulatory acts of adult male rats. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 1940, 30, 419–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Strongman, K. T. The effect of anxiety on food intake in the rat. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1965, 17, 255–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Stunkard, A. J. The night-eating syndrome. American Journal of Medicine, 1955, 19, 78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Stunkard, A. J. Obesity. In Freedman & Kaplan (Eds.), Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1967.Google Scholar
  149. Svensson, T. H., & Waldeck, B. On the significance of central noradrenaline for motor activity: experiments with a new dopamine-J3-hydroxylase inhibitor. European Journal of Pharmacology, 1969, 7, 278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Teitelbaum, P., & Wolgin, D. Neurotransmitters and the regulation of food intake. In W. H. Gispen, T. B. Greidanus van Wimersma, B. Bohus, & D. deWied (Eds.), Progress in brain research. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1975.Google Scholar
  151. Thierry, A. M., Tassin, J. P., Blanc, G., & Glowinski, J. Selective activation of the mesocortical DA system by stress. Nature,1976, 263, 242–243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Thoa, N. B., Eichelman, B., Richardson, J. S., & Jacobowitz, D. 6-hydroxydopa deple-tion of brain norepinephrine and the facilitation of aggressive behavior. Science,1972, 178, 75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Thompson, T., & Bloom, W. Aggressive behavior and extinction-induced response-rate increase. Psychonomic Science, 1966, 5, 335–336.Google Scholar
  154. Tinbergen, N. Ueber das Verhalten Kampfender Kohlmeisen (Parus m. major L.). Ardea, 1937, 26, 22.Google Scholar
  155. Tinbergen, N. The study of instinct. Oxford: Claredon Press, 1951.Google Scholar
  156. Tugendhat, B. The normal feeding behavior of the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Behavior, 1960a, 15, 284–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Tugendhat, B. The disturbed feeding behavior of the three-spined stickelback: I elec-troshock is administered in the food area, Behavior, 1960b, 16, 159–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Ullman, A. D. The experimental production and analysis of a “compulsive eating symp-tom” in rats. Journal of Comparative Physiological Psychology, 1951, 44, 575–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Ullman, A. D. Three factors involved in producing “compulsive eating” in rats. Journal of Comparative Physiological Psychology,1952, 45, 490–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Ulrich, R. E. Pain as a cause of aggression. American Zoology, 1966, 6, 663.Google Scholar
  161. Ulrich, R. E., & Azrin, N. H. Reflexive fighting in response to aversive stimulation. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1962, 5, 511.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Ulrich, R. E., Hutchinson, R. R., & Azrin, N. H. Pain-elicited aggression. Psychological Record, 1965, 15, 111.Google Scholar
  163. Ungerstedt, U. Brain dopamine neurons and behavior. In F. O. Schmitt & F. G. Worden (Eds.), The neurosciences: Third study program. Cambridge, Mass.: The M.I.T. Press, 1974, pp. 695–703.Google Scholar
  164. Vaughan, C. & Leff, J. P. The influence of familial and social factors in the course of psychiatric illness. British Journal of Psychiatry,1976, 129, 125–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Valenstein, E. S. Stereotyped behavior and stress. In T. Serban (Ed.), Psychopathology of human adaptation. New York: Plenum, 1976.Google Scholar
  166. Valzelli, L. Aggressive behavior induced by isolation. In S. Garattini & E. B. Sigg (Eds.), Aggressive behavior. New York: Wiley, 1969.Google Scholar
  167. Venables, P. H., & Wing, J. K. Level of arousal and the subclassification of schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1962, 7, 114–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Williams, R. B., & Eichelman, B. Social setting: Influence on the physiological response to electric shock in the rat. Science 1971, 174, 613–614.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Wilson, J. R., Kuehn, R. E., & Beach, F. A. Modification in the sexual behavior of male rats produced by changing the stimulus female. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 1963, 56 636–644.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Wolgin, D. L., Cytawa, J., & Teitelbaum, P. The role of activation in the regulation of food intake. In D. Novin, W. Wyrwicka, & G. Bray (Eds.), Hunger: Basic mechanisms and clinical applications. New York: Raven, 1976, pp. 179–191.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seymour M. Antelman
    • 1
    • 2
  • Anthony R. Caggiula
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Pittsburgh, School of MedicinePittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Western Psychiatric Institute and ClinicPittsburghUSA
  3. 3.Departments of Psychology, and PharmacologyUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations