Advertisement

Toward a Psychobiology of Transcendence: God in the Brain

  • Arnold J. Mandell

Abstract

Since the time of atomists like Democritus, forerunner of Plato and Aristotle, two modes of scientific explanation have been used to fill the conceptual space between mind and brain, a dualism more grudgingly resistant to resolution than that of energy and matter. One method assumes a world of hidden realities, impenetrable, to be understood by conjecture and test, observations evaluated for their consistency with hypothetical constructs. The other requires an intuitive grasp of the essence, insightful awareness of the thing itself. The first approach defines a unification of mind and brain out of the possible; the second assumes it. Feelings about these orientations still run strong. In a recent book, the philosopher of science Sir Karl Popper expressed irritation with Plato for intermixing these two thought styles without acknowledging the intermixture, concluding that only the conjectural-test approach is valid; the other kind of knowing Popper dismissed as a “will-o-the-wisp” (Popper & Eccles, 1977).

Keywords

Temporal Lobe Tyrosine Hydroxylase Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Dorsal Raphe Nucleus Tryptophan Hydroxylase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abraham, K. Notes on the psychoanalytical investigation and treatment of manic-depressive insanity and allied conditions. Selected papers on psychoanalysis. London: Hogarth, 1927.Google Scholar
  2. Adey, W. R. Computer analysis of hippocampal EEG activity and impedance in approach learning. Effects of psychotomimetic and hallucinogenic drugs. In Pharmacology of conditioning, learning and retention. New York: Academic Press, 1964.Google Scholar
  3. Adey, W. R. Neurophysiological correlates of information transaction and storage of brain tissue. In E. Steller & J. M. Sprague (Eds.), Progress in physiological psychology, Vol. 1. New York: Academic, 1966.Google Scholar
  4. Adey, W. R., & Dunlop, C. W. The action of certain cyclohexamines in hippocampal system during approach performance in the cat. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 1960, 130, 418–426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Adey, W. R., Bell, F. R., & Dennis, B. J. Effects of LSD, psilocybin and psilocin on temporal lobe EEG patterns and learned behavior in the cat. Neurology, 1962, 12, 591–602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Adey, W. R., Walter, D. O., & Lindsley, D. F. Effects of subthalamic lesions on learned behavior and correlated hippocampal and subcortical slow wave activity. Archives of Neurology, 1962, 6, 194–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Aghajanian, G. K. Influence of drugs on the firing of serotonin-containing neurons in brain. Federation Proceedings, 1972, 31, 91–96. (a)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Aghajanian, G. K. LSD and CNS transmission. Annual Review of Pharmacology, 1972, 12, 157–168. (b)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Aghajanian, G. K. Feedback regulation of central monoaminergic neurons: Evidence from single cell recording studies. In M. B. H. Youdim & W. Lovenberg (Eds.), Essays in neurochemistry and neuropharmacology. London: Wiley, 1977.Google Scholar
  10. Aghajanian, G. K., & Bunney, B. W. Central dopaminergic neurons: Neurophysiological identification and response to drugs. In E. Usdin & S. H. Snyder (Eds.), Frontiers in catecholamine research. Oxford: Pergamon, 1973.Google Scholar
  11. Aghajanian, G. K. & Haigler, H. J. Hallucinogenic indoleamines: Preferential action upon presynaptic serotonin receptors. Psychopharmacology Communications, 1976, 1, 619–629.Google Scholar
  12. Aghajanian, G. K., & Wang, R. Y. Habenular and other midbrain raphe afferents demonstrated by a modified retrograde tracing technique. Brain Research, 1977, 122, 229–242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Aghajanian, G. K., & Wang, R. Y. Physiology and pharmacology of central serotonergic neurons. In M. A. Lipton, A. DiMascio, & K. F. Killam (Eds.), Psychopharmacology: A generation of progress. New York: Raven, 1978.Google Scholar
  14. Aghajanian, G. K., Foote, S. E., & Sheard, M. H. Lysergic acid diethylamide: Sensitive neuronal units in the midbrain raphe. Science, 1968, 161, 706–708.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Aghajanian, G. K., Cedarbaum, J. M., & Wang, R. Y. Evidence for norepinephrinemediated collateral inhibition of locus coeruleus neurons. Brain Research, 1977, 136, 570–577.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Allison, G. E. Psychiatric implications of religious conversion. Canadian Psychiatric Association Journal, 1967, 12, 55–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Allison, J. Respiratory changes during the practice of the technique of transcendental meditation. Lancet, 1970, I, 833–834.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. American Psychiatric Association, Task Force on Nomenclature and Statistics. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disease II. Washington: American Psychiatric Association, 1968.Google Scholar
  19. Amsel, A. The role of frustrative nonreward in noncontinuous reward situations. Psychological Bulletin, 1958, 55, 102–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Anand, B. K., & Dua, S. Stimulation of limbic system of brain in waking animals. Science, 1955, 122, 1139–1140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Anden, N-E., Corrodi, H., Fuxe, K., & Hökfelt, T. Evidence for a central 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor stimulation by lysergic acid diethylamide. British Journal of Pharmacology, 1968, 34, 1–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Anderson, P. Organization of hippocampal neurons and their interconnections. In R. Isaacson & K. Pribram (Eds.), The hippocampus, Vol. 1. New York: Plenum, 1975.Google Scholar
  23. Anderson, P., & Lomo, T. Mode of control of hippocampal pyramidal cell discharges. In R. Whelan (Ed.), The neural control of behavior. New York: Academic, 1970.Google Scholar
  24. Anderson, P. W. More is different. Science, 1972, 177, 393–396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Andy, O. J., & Akert, K. Seizure patterns induced by electrical stimulation of hippocampal formation in the cat. Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, 1955, 14, 198–213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Andy, O. J., & Mukawa, J. Amygdaloid propagation to the brain stem (electrophysiologi- cal study). Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1960, 12, 333–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Andy, O. J., Chinn, R., Allen, M. B., & Shawver, E. F. Influence of mesencephalic and diencephalic stimulation on limbic system seizures. A behavioral and electroencephalographic study in the cat. Neurology, 1958, 8, 939–952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Andy, O. J., Chinn, R., Bonn, P., & Allen, M. Effect of frontal cortical and hippocampal system after-discharges upon learned behavior. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1958, 10, 206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Andy, O. J., Peeler, D. F., Mitchell, J., Foshee, D. P., & Koshino, K. The hippocampal contribution to “learning and memory.” Conditioned Reflexes, 1968, 3, 217–228.Google Scholar
  30. Angrist, B. M., & Gershon, S. The phenomenology of experimentally induced amphetamine psychosis. Preliminary observations. Biological Psychiatry, 1970, 2, 95–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Angst, J. (Ed.). Classification and prediction of outcome of depression, Symposium Medicum Hoescht 8. Stuttgart: F. K. Schattauer Verlag, 1973.Google Scholar
  32. Armacher, P. Freud’s neurological education and its influence on psychoanalytic theory. Psychological Issues, Monograph 16, Vol. 4. New York: International Universities Press, 1965.Google Scholar
  33. Artemenko, D. O. Role of hippocampal neurons in theta-wave generation. Nierofiziologiya, 1972, 4, 531–539.Google Scholar
  34. Aserinsky, E., & Kleitman, N. Regularly occurring periods of eye motility, and concomitant phenomena during sleep. Science, 1953, 118, 273–274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Babington, R. G., & Horovitz, Z. P. Neuropharmacology of SQ 10, 996, a compound with several therapeutic indications. Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie, 1973, 202, 106–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Ballenger, J. C., & Post, R. M. Therapeutic effects of carbamazepine in affective illness: A preliminary report. Communications in Psychopharmacology, 1978, 2, 159–175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Barchas, J., & Usdin, E. (Eds.). Serotonin and behavior. New York: Academic, 1973.Google Scholar
  38. Bear, D. The significance of behavioral change in temporal lobe epilepsy. McLean Hospital Journal, June 1977, 9–21.Google Scholar
  39. Bear, D. M., & Fedio, P. Quantitative analysis of interictal behavior in temporal lobe epilepsy. Archives of Neurology, 1977, 34, 454–467.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Beard, A. W. The schizophrenia-like psychoses of epilepsy. II. Physical aspects. British Journal of Psychiatry, 1963, 109, 113–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Beard, A. W., & Slater, E. The schizophrenic-like psychoses of epilepsy. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine (London), 1962, 55, 311–316.Google Scholar
  42. Belenkov, G. Von. Interaction of paired sensòry stimuli and conduction in peripheral nerves. Journal of Applied Physiology, 1963, 18, 1276–1284.Google Scholar
  43. Belenkov, N. J. The conditioned reflex and the reticular formation. In Structural and functional bases of the conditioned reflex. Leningrad, 1970, 18.Google Scholar
  44. Bell, C., Sierra, G., Buendia, N., & Segundo, J. P. Sensory properties of neurons in the mesencephalic reticular formation. Journal of Neurophysiology, 1964, 27, 961–987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Ben-Ari, Y., & Kelly, J. S. Iontophoretic and intravenous effects of the neuroleptic, a-flupenthixol, on dopamine evoked inhibition. Journal of Physiology (London), 1974, 242, 66P–67P.Google Scholar
  46. Ben-Ari, Y., Sr Kelly, J. S. Dopamine evoked inhibition of single cells of the feline putamen and basolateral amygdala. Journal of Physiology (London), 1976, 256, 1–21.Google Scholar
  47. Benson, H., Beary, J. F., & Carol, M. P. Meditation and the relaxation response. In S. R. Dean (Ed.), Psychiatry and mysticism. New York: Nelson-Hall, 1975.Google Scholar
  48. Bertilsson, L., Asberg, M., Mellstrom, B., Tybring, G., & Sjoquist, F. Factors determining drug effects in depressed patients—Studies of nortriptyline and chlorimipramine. In Depressive disorders, Symposium Medicum Hoechst 13. Stuttgart: F. K. Shattauer Verlag, 1978.Google Scholar
  49. Black, A. H. Hippocampal electrical activity and behavior. In R. L. Isaacson & K. H. Pribram (Eds.), The hippocampus, Vol. 2. New York: Plenum, 1975.Google Scholar
  50. Blackstad, T. W. Commissural connections of the hippocampal region in the rat, with special reference to their mode of termination. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 1956, 105, 417–537.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Blackwood, W., & Corsellis, J. A. N. (Eds.). Greenfield’s neuropathology (3d ed.). London: Arnold, 1976.Google Scholar
  52. Bleuler, E. Dementia praecox or the group of schizophrenias. New York: International Universities Press, 1950.Google Scholar
  53. Bliss, T. V. P., & Lomo, T. Long-lasting potentiation of synaptic transmission in the. dentate area of the anesthetized rabbit following stimulation of the perforant path. Journal of Physiology (London), 1973, 232, 331–356.Google Scholar
  54. Block, V. Facts and hypotheses concerning memory consolidation processes. Brain Research, 1970, 24, 561–672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Blumer, D. Changes of sexual behavior related to temporal lobe disorders in man. Journal of Sex Research, 1970, 6, 173–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Blumer, D. Neuropsychiatric aspects of psychomotor and other forms of epilepsy. In S. Livingston (Ed.), Comprehensive management of epilepsy in infancy, childhood and adolescence. Springfield, Ill.: Thomas, 1971.Google Scholar
  57. Blumer, D. Temporal lobe epilepsy and its psychiatric significance. In D. F. Benson & D. Blumer (Eds.), Psychiatric aspects of neurologic disease. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1975.Google Scholar
  58. Blumer, D., & Walker, A. E. Sexual behavior in temporal lobe epilepsy. Archives of Neurology, 1967, 16, 37–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Blumer, D., & Walker, A. E. The neural basis of sexual behavior. In D. F. Benson & D. Blumer (Eds.), Psychiatric aspects of neurologic disease. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1975.Google Scholar
  60. Bohr, N. Atomic physics and human knowledge. New York: Wiley, 1958.Google Scholar
  61. Boven, W. Religiosité et épilepsie. Schweizer Archiv fur Neurologie, Neurochirurgie und Psychiatrie (Zurich), 1919, 4, 153–169.Google Scholar
  62. Bowers, M. B., & Freedman, D. X. Psychedelic experiences in acute psychoses. In S. R. Dean (Ed.), Psychiatry and mysticism. Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1975.Google Scholar
  63. Bradley, P. B. The central action of certain drugs in relation to the reticular formation of the brain. In H. H. Jasper (Ed.), Reticular formation of brain. Boston: Little, Brown, 1958.Google Scholar
  64. Bradley, P. B., & Mollica, A. The effect of adrenaline and acetylcholine on single unit activity in the reticular formation of the decerebrate cat. Archives Italiennes de Biologie (Pisa), 1958, 96, 168–186.Google Scholar
  65. Braestrup, C. Effects of phenoxybenzamine aceprone and clonidine on the level of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylblycol (MOPEG) in rat brain. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 1974, 26, 139–141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Bramwell, G. J. The effects of antidepressants on unit activity in the midbrain raphe of rats. Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie, 1974, 211, 24–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Brazier, M. A. B. The actions of anesthetics on the nervous system. In E. D. Adrian, F. Bremer, & H. H. Jasper (Eds.), Brain mechanisms and consciousness. Oxford, England: Blackwell, 1954.Google Scholar
  68. Brazier, M. A. B. Studies of the EEG activity of limbic structures in man. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1968, 25, 309–318.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Brodie, B. B., Spector, S., & Shore, P. A. Interaction of monoamine oxidase inhibitors with physiological and biochemical mechanisms in brain. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1959, 80, 609–614.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Brooks, D. C., & Gershon, M. D. Eye movement petentials in the oculomotor and visual systems of the cat: A comparison of reserpine induced waves with those present during wakefulness and rapid eye movement sleep. Brain Research, 1971, 27, 223–239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Brown, G. L., Goodwin, F. K., Ballenger, J. C., Goyer, P. F., & Major, L. F. CSF amine metabolites in human aggression. American Psychiatric Association, May 10, 1978, Session 11, Paper 180 (abstract).Google Scholar
  72. Buchsbaum, M., Goodwin, F. K., Murphy, D. L., & Borge, G. AER in affective disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1971, 128, 19–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Buckingham, R., & Radulovacki, M. 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid in cerebrospinal fluid: An indicator of slow wave sleep. Brain Research, 1975, 99, 440–443.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Bullard, W. P., Guthrie, P. B., Russo, P. V., & Mandell, A. J. Regional and subcellular distribution and some factors in the regulation of reduced pterins in rat brain. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 1978, 206, 4–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Bullard, W. P., Yellin, J. B., Russo, P. V., & Mandell, A. J. The pharmacology of striatal pterins and the regulation of dopamine function. In E. Usdin (Ed.), Catecholamines: Basic and clinical frontiers. New York: Pergamon, 1979.Google Scholar
  76. Bunney, W. E., & Gulley, B. L. The current status of research in the catecholamine theories of affective disorders. In E. Usdin & A. J. Mandell (Eds.), Biochemistry of mental disorders. New York: Dekker, 1978.Google Scholar
  77. Bunney, W. E., Mason, J. W., & Roatch, J. F. A psychoendocrine study of severe psychotic depressive crisis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1965, 122, 72–80.Google Scholar
  78. Bunney, W. E., Murphy, D. L., Goodwin, F. K., & Borge, G. F. The switch process from depression to mania: Relationship to drugs which alter brain amines. Lancet, 1970, 1, 1022–1027.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Bunney, W. E., Goodwin, F. K., & Murphy, D. L. The “switch process” in manic-depressive illness. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1972, 27, 312–317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Cade, J. F. Lithium salts in the treatment of psychotic excitement. Medical Journal of Australia, 1949, 2, 349–352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Cadoret, F. Genetics of affective disorders. In R. G. Grenell & S. Gabay (Eds.), Biological foundations of psychiatry. New York: Raven, 1976.Google Scholar
  82. Carlsson, A., & Lindqvist, M. Effects of chlorpromazine or haloperidol on formation of 3-methoxytyramine and normetanephrine in mouse brain. Acta Pharmacologia et Toxicologica, 1963, 20, 140–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Carlsson, A., Lindqvist, M., & Magnusson, T. 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine and 5-hydroxytryptophan as reserpine antagonists. Nature, 1957, 180, 1200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Chadoff, P., & Lyons, H. Hysteria—The hysterical personality in hysterical conversion. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1958, 114, 734–740.Google Scholar
  85. Chafetz, M. E., & Schwab, R. S. Psychological factors involved in bizarre seizures. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1959, 21, 96–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Chapman, W. P., Schroeder, H. R., Geyer, G., Brazier, M. A. B., Fager, C., Poppen, J. L., Solomon, H. C., & Yakovlev, P. I. Physiological evidence concerning the importance of amygdaloid nuclear region in the integration of circulatory function and emotion in man. Science, 1954, 120, 949–950.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Chatrian, G. E., & Chapman, W. P. Electrographic study of the amygdaloid region with implanted electrodes in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. In E. R. Ramey & D. S. O’Doherty (Eds.), Electrical studies of the unanesthetized brain. New York: Hoeber, 1960.Google Scholar
  88. Cherlow, D. G., Dymond, A. M., Crandall, P. H., Walter, R. D., & Serafetinides, E. A. Evoked response and after-discharge thresholds to electrical stimulation in temporal lobe epileptics. Archives of Neurology, 1977, 34, 527–531.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Christensen, C. W. Religious conversion. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1963, 9, 207–216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Clark, C. V. H., & Isaacson, R. L. Effect of bilateral hippocampal ablation on DRL performance. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1965, 59, 137–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Clark, W. H. Psychology of religion. New York: Macmillan, 1965.Google Scholar
  92. Cohen, M. B., Baker, G., & Cohen, R. A. An intensive study of 12 cases of manic-depressive psychosis. Psychiatry, 1954, 17, 103–137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Connell, P. H. Amphetamine psychosis, Maudsley Monograph No. 5. London: Oxford University Press, 1958.Google Scholar
  94. Cookson, J., & Silverstone, T. 5-Hydroxytryptamine and dopamine pathways in mania: A pilot study of fenfluramine and pimozide. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 1976, 3, 942–943.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Cools, A. R., & Van Rossum, J. M. Caudate dopamine and stereotyped behavior of cats. Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie, 1970, 197, 163–173.Google Scholar
  96. Coppen, A., & Shaw, D. M. Potentiation of the antidepressive effect of a monoamineoxidase inhibitor by tryptophan. Lancet, 1963, I, 79–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Coppen, A., Shaw, D. M., Herzberg, B., & Maggs, R. Tryptophan in the treatment of depression. Lancet, 1967, 2, 1178–1180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Coppen, A., Whybrow, P., Noguera, R., Maggs, R., & Prange, A. The comparative antidepressant value of L-tryptophan and imipramine with and without attempted potentiation by liothyronine. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1972, 26, 234–241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Coppen, A., Prange, A. J., Whybrow, P. C., & Noguera, R. Abnormalities of in- doleamines in affective disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1972, 26, 474–478.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Coppen, A., Gupta, R., Montgomery, S., & Bailey, J. A double-blind comparison of lithium carbonate and Ludiomil in the prophylaxis of unipolar affective illness. Pharmakopsychiatrie, Neuro-Psychopharmakologie, 1976, 9, 94–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Coppen, A., Montgomery, S. A., Gupta, R. K., & Bailey, J. E. A double-blind comparison of lithium carbonate and maprotiline in the prophylaxis of the affective disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry, 1976, 128 479–485.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Coppen, A., Chose, K., & Jorgensen, A. Prolonged treatment of depression by amitryptyline. In Depressive disorders, Symposium Medicum Hoescht 13. Stuttgart: F. K. Schattauer Verlag, 1978.Google Scholar
  103. Costall, B., & Naylor, R. J. The role of telencephalic dopaminergic systems in the mediation of apomorphine-stereotyped behavior. European Journal of Pharmacology, 1973, 24, 8–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Costall, B., & Naylor, R. J. Stereotyped and circling behavior induced by dopaminergic agonists after lesions of the midbrain raphe nuclei. European Journal of Pharmacology, 1974, 23, 206–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Costall, B., Naylor, R. J., & Neumayer, J. L. Dissociation by the apomorphine derivatives of the stereotypic and hyperactivity responses resulting from injections into the nucleus accumbens septi. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 1975, 27, 875–877.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Creese, I., & Iversen, S. D. Amphetamine response after dopamine neurone destruction. Nature New Biology, 1972, 238, 247–248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Cronson, A. J., & Flemenbaum, A. antagonism of cocaine high by lithium. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1978, 135, 856–857.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Crowne, D. P., & Radcliffe, D. D. Some characteristics and functional relations of the electrical activity of the primate hippocampus and a hypothesis of hippocampal function. In R. Isaacson & K. Pribram (Eds.), The hippocampus, Vol. 2. New York: Plenum, 1975.Google Scholar
  109. Dahlstrom, A., & Fuxe, K. Evidence for the existence of monoamine neurons in the central nervous system. II: Experimentally induced changes in the intraneuronal amine levels of bulbospinal neuron systems. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica Supplement 247, 1965, 64, 1–36.Google Scholar
  110. Dalby, M. A. Antiepileptic and psychotropic effect of carbamazepine (Tegretol (3) in the treatment of psychomotor epilepsy. Epilepsia, 1971, 12, 325–334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Dalby, M. A. Behavioral effects of carbamazepine. In J. K. Penry & D. D. Daly (Eds.), Complex partial seizures and their treatment. Vol. 11: Advances in neurology. New York: Raven, 1975.Google Scholar
  112. Dandy, W. E. The brain. In D. Lewis (Ed.), Practice of surgery. Hagerstown, Md.: Prior, 1931.Google Scholar
  113. Davis, M., Gallager, D. W., & Aghajanian, G. K. Tricyclic antidepressant drugs: Attenuation of excitatory effects of d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on the acoustic startle reflex. Life Sciences, 1977, 20, 1249–1258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Delgado, J. M. R., & Hamlin, H. Spontaneous and evoked electrical seizures in animals and in humans. In E. R. Ramey, D. S. O’Doherty (Eds.), Electrical studies on the unanesthetized brain. New York: Hoeber, 1960.Google Scholar
  115. Delgado, J. M. R., & Selvillano, M. Evolution of repeated hippocampal seizures in the cat. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1961, 13, 722–733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Dement, W. The occurrences of low voltage, fast electroencephalogram patterns during behavioral sleep in the cat. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1958, 10, 291–296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Dement, W. The effect of dream deprivation. Science, 1960, 131, 1705–1707.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Dement, W., and Wolpert, E. The relation of eye movements, body motility, and external stimuli to dream content. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1958, 55, 543–553.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Dement, W., Greenberg, S., & Klein, R. The effect of partial REM sleep deprivation and delayed recovery. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 1966, 4, 141–152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Dement, W., Ferguson, J., Cohen, H., & Barchas, J. Nonchemical methods and data using a biochemical model: The REM quanta. In A. J. Mandell & M. P. Mandell (Eds.), Psychochemical research in man. New York: Academic, 1969.Google Scholar
  121. Dement, W., Henriksen, S., & Ferguson, J. The effect of the chronic administration of parachlorophenylalanine on sleep parameters in the cat. In J. Barchas & E. Usdin (Eds.), Serotonin and behavior. New York: Academic, 1973.Google Scholar
  122. Dement, W., Holman, R. B., & Guilleminault, C. Neurochemical and neuropharmacological foundations of the sleep disorders. In E. Usdin & A. J. Mandell (Eds.), Biochemistry of mental disorders. New York: Dekker, 1978.Google Scholar
  123. Demolina, A. F., & Hunsperger, R. W. Central representation of affective reactions in forebrain and brain stem: Electrical stimulation of amygdala, stria terminalis, and adjacent structures. Journal of Physiology, 1959, 145, 251–265.Google Scholar
  124. Demontigny, C., & Aghajanian, G. K. Preferential action of 5-methoxytryptamine and 5-methoxydimethyltryptamine on presynaptic serotonin receptors: A comparative iontophoretic study with LSD and serotonin. Neuropharmacology, 1977, 16, 811–818.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Demontigny, C., & Aghajanian, G. K. Tricyclic antidepressants: Chronic treatment increases responsivity of rat forebrain neurons to serotonin. Science, 1978, 202, 1303–1306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Dewhurst, K., & Beard, A. W. Sudden religious conversion in temporal lobe epilepsy. British Journal of Psychiatry, 1970, 117, 497–507.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Dewied, D. Effects of peptide hormones on behavior. In W. F. Ganong & L. Martini (Eds.), Frontiers in neuroendocrinology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1969.Google Scholar
  128. Dewied, D., Witter, A., & Lande, S. Anterior pituitary peptides and avoidance acquisition of hypophysectomized rats. Progress in Brain Research, 1970, 32, 213–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Dewson, J., Dement, W., & Simmons, F. Observations on middle ear muscle activity during sleep in the cat. Journal of Experimental Neurology, 1965, 12, 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Macs, D., Myers, R. E., & Kling, A. Uncus and amygdala lesions: Effects on social behavior in the free-ranging Rhesus monkey. Science, 1969, 165, 69–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Dikman, S., & Reitan, R. M. MMPI correlates of dysphasic language disturbances. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1974, 83, 675–679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Dikman, S., & Reitan, R. M. MMPI correlates of adaptive ability deficits in patients with brain lesions. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1977, 165, 247–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Donnelly, E. F., Dent, J. K., & Murphy, D. L. Comparison of temporal lobe epileptics and affective disorders on the Halsted-Reitan test battery. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1972, 28, 61–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Douglas, R. J., & Pribram, K. H. Distraction and habituation in monkeys with limbic lesions. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1969, 69, 473–480.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Dunner, D. L., Gershon, E. S., & Goodwin, F. K. Heritable factors in the severity of affective illness. Biological Psychiatry, 1976, 11, 31–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Eidelberg, E., Lesse, H., & Gault, F. P. An experimental model of temporal lobe epilepsy: Studies on the convulsant properties of cocaine. In H. Gilbert & G. H. Glaser (Eds.), EEG and behavior. New York: Basic Books, 1963.Google Scholar
  137. Elazar, Z., & Adey, W. R. Spectral analysis of low frequency components in the electrical activity of the hippocampus during learning. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1967, 23, 225–240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Ellinwood, E. H. Effect of chronic methamphetamine intoxication in rhesus monkeys. Biological Psychiatry, 1971, 3, 25–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Ellinwood, E. H. Behavioral and EEG changes in the amphetamine model of psychosis. In E. Usdin (Ed.), Neuropsychopharmacology of monoamines and their regulatory enzymes. New York: Raven, 1974.Google Scholar
  140. Ellinwood, E. H., & Escalante, D. O. Chronic amphetamine effect on the olefactory forebrain. Biological Psychiatry, 1970, 2, 189–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Ellinwood, E. H., Kilbey, M. M., Castellani, S., & Khoury, C. Amygdala hyperspindling and seizures induced by cocaine. In E. H. Ellinwood & M. M. Kilbey (Eds.), Cocaine and other stimulants. New York: Plenum, 1977.Google Scholar
  142. El-Yousef, M. K., Janowsky, D. S., Davis, J. M., & Rosenblatt, J. E. Induction of severe depression by physostigmine in marijuana intoxicated individuals. British Journal of Addiction, 1973, 68, 321–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Emerson, L. E. The psychoanalytic treatment of hystero-epilepsy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1915, 11, 315–328.Google Scholar
  144. Endröczi, E., & Lissak, K. The role of the mesencephalon and archicortex in the activation and inhibition of the pituitary-adrenocortical system. Acta Physiologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 1959, 15, 25–37.Google Scholar
  145. Ervin, F., Epstein, A. W., & King, H. E. Behavior of epileptic and nonepileptic patients with temporal spikes. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 1955, 74, 488–496.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Evans-Wentz, W. Y. The Tibetan book of the dead. New York: Oxford University Press, 1960.Google Scholar
  147. Falconer, M. A. Clinical manifestations of temporal lobe epilepsy and their recognition in relation to surgical treatment. British Medical Journal, 1954, 2, 939–944.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Falconer, M. A. Reversibility by temporal-lobe resection of the behavioral abnormalities of temporal-lobe epilepsy. New England Journal of Medicine, 1973, 289, 451–455.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Falconer, M. A., Serafetinides, E. A., & Corsellis, J. A. Etiology and pathogenesis of temporal lobe epilepsy. Archives of Neurology, 1964, 10, 233–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Fallon, J. H., & Moore, R. Y. Dopamine innervation of some basal forebrain areas in the rat. Abstracts, The Society for Neuroscience, 1976, 2, 486.Google Scholar
  151. Falret, J. De l’état mental des épileptiques. Archives Générales de Médecine. 1860, Series 5, Vol. 16, 666–679.Google Scholar
  152. Farkas, T., Dunner, D. L., & Fieve, R. R. L-Tryptophan in depressions. Biological Psychiatry, 1976, 11, 295–302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Feindel, W., Penfield, W., & Jasper, H. Localization of epileptic discharge in temporal lobe automatism. Transactions of the American Neurological Association, 1952, 14, 17.Google Scholar
  154. Fenichel, O. The psychoanalytic theory of neurosis. New York: Norton, 1945.Google Scholar
  155. Fisher, C., Gross, J., & Zuch, J. Cycle of penile erections synchronous with dreaming (REM) sleep. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1965, 12, 29–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Fleischer, L. N., & Glick, S. D. Hallucinogen-induced rotational behavior in rats. Psychopharmacology, 1979, 62, 193–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Flemenbaum, A. Does lithium block the effects of amphetamine? A report of three cases. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1974, 131, 820–821.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Flor-Henry, P. Psychosis and temporal lobe epilepsy. A controlled investigation. Epilepsia, 1969, 10, 363–395. (a)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Flor-Henry, P. Schizophrenic-like reactions and affective psychoses associated with temporal lobe epilepsy: Etiological factors. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1969, 126, 400–404. (b)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Flor-Henry, P. Ictal and interictal psychiatric manifestations in epilepsy. Specific or nonspecific? Epilepsia, 1972, 13, 773–783.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Flor-Henry, P. Lateralized temporal-limbic dysfunction and psychopathology. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 1976, 280, 777–795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Flor-Henry, P., & Yeudall, L. T. Lateralized cerebral dysfunction in depressive and in aggressive criminal psychopathy. Further observations. Journal of International Research Communications, July 1973, 1(5), 31.Google Scholar
  163. Flynn, J. P. The neural basis of aggression in cats. In D. C. Glass (Ed.), Neurophysiology and emotion. New York: Rockefeller University Press, 1967.Google Scholar
  164. Fonnum, F. Topographical and subcellular localization of choline acetyltransferase in the rat hippocampal region. Journal of Neurochemistry, 1970, 17, 1029–1037.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Foote, S. L., Freedman, R., & Oliver, A. P. Effects of putative neurotransmitters on neuronal activity in monkey auditory cortex. Brain Research, 1975, 86, 229–242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Foote, W. E., Sheard, M. H., & Aghajanian, G. K. Comparison of effects of LSD and amphetamine on midbrain raphe units. Nature, 1969, 222, 567–569.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Foreman, M. M., & Moss, R. L. Role of hypothalamic serotonergic receptors in the control of lordosis behavior in the female rat. Hormones and Behavior, 1978, 10, 97–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Freedman, D. X., & Halaris, A. E. Monoamines and the biochemical mode of action of LSD at synapses. In M. A. Lipton, A. DiMascio, & K. F. Killam (Eds.), Psychopharmacology: A generation of progress. New York: Raven, 1978.Google Scholar
  169. Freedman, R., Hoffer, B. J., Püro, D., & Woodward, D. J. Noradrenaline modulation of the responses of the cerebellar Purkinje cell to afferent synaptic activity. British Journal of Pharmacology, 1976, 57, 603–605.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Frenk, H., Urca, G., & Liebeskind, J. C. Epileptic properties of leucine-and methionine-enkephalin: Comparison with morphine and reversibility by naloxone. Brain Research, 1978, 147, 327–337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Freud, S. Mourning and melancholia. In Collected Papers. London: Hogarth, 1925, 4, 152–170.Google Scholar
  172. Freud, S. The origins of psycho-analysis. Letters to Wilhelm Fliess, drafts and notes, 1887–1902. New York: Basic Books, 1954.Google Scholar
  173. Friedman, P. A., Kappelman, A. H., & Kaufman, S. Partial purification and characterization of tryptophan hydroxylase from rabbit hindbrain. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 1972, 247, 4165–4173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Friedman, S., & Fischer, C. On the presence of a rhythmic, diurnal, oral instinctual drive cycle in man: A preliminary report. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 1967, 15, 317–331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Furukawa, T. Modification by lithium of behavioral responses to methamphetamine and tetrabenazine. Psychopharmacologia, 1975, 42, 243–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Fuxe, K., & Jonsson, G. Further mapping of central 5-hydroxytryptamine neurons: Studies with the neurotoxic dihydroxytryptamines. Advances in Biochemical Psychopharmacology, 1974, 10, 1–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Gainotti, G. Emotional behavior and hemispheric side of the lesion. Cortex, 1972, 8, 41–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Galin, D. Implications for psychiatry of left and right cerebral specialization. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1972, 31, 572–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Gallager, D. W., & Aghajanian, G. K. Effects of chlorimipramine and lysergic acid diethylamide on efflux of precursor-formed 3H-serotonin: Correlations with serotonergic impulse flow. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 1975, 193, 785–795.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Gallager, D. W., & Aghajanian, G. K. Effect of antipsychotic drugs on the firing of dorsal raphe cells II. Reversal by picrotoxin. European Journal of Pharmacology, 1976, 39, 357–364. (a)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Gallager, D. W., & Aghajanian, G. K. Inhibition of firing of raphe neurons by tryptophan and 5-hydroxytryptophan: Blocked by inhibiting serotonin synthesis with R04–4602. Neuropharmacology, 1976, 15, 149–156. (b)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Gastaut, H. So-called “psychomotor” and “temporal” epilepsy. Epilepsia, 1953, 2, 59–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Gastaut, H. La maladie de Vincent Van Gogh envisagée à la lumière des conceptions nouvelles sur l’épilepsie psychomotrice. Annales Medico-Psychologiques (Paris), 1956, 114, 196–238.Google Scholar
  184. Gastaut, H. Fyodor Mikhailovitch Dostoevskÿ s involuntary contribution to the symptomatology and prognosis of epilepsy. Epilepsia, 1978, 19, 186–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Gastaut, H., & Broughton, R. Epileptic seizures: Clinical and electrographical features, diagnosis and treatment. Springfield, Ill.: Thomas, 1972.Google Scholar
  186. Gastaut, H., & Collomb, H. Étude du comportement sexual chez les épileptiques psychomoteurs. Annales Medico-Psychologiques (Paris), 1954, 112, 657–696.Google Scholar
  187. Gastaut, H., Morin, G., & Lesevre, N. Étude du comportement des épileptiques psychomoteurs dans l’intervalle de leurs crises. Les troubles de l’activité globale et de la sociabilité. Annales Medico-Psychologiques (Paris), 1955, 113, 1–27.Google Scholar
  188. Gershon, E., Mark, A., Cohen, N., Belizon, N., Baron, M., & Knobe, K. E. Transmitted factors in the morbid risk of affective disorders. A controlled study. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 1975, 12, 283–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Gershon, E. S., Targum, S. D., Kessler, L. R.; Mazure, C. M., & Bunney, W. E. Genetic studies and biological strategies in the affective disorders. Progress in Medical Genetics, 1977, 2, 101–164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Geschwind, N. Disconnexion syndromes in animals and man, Part 1. Brain, 1965, 88, 237–294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Geschwind, N. Effects of temporal-lobe surgery on behavior. New England Journal of Medicine, 1973, 289, 480–481.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Geschwind, N. The borderland of neurology and psychiatry: Some common misconceptions. In D. F. Benson & D. Blumer (Eds.), Psychiatric aspects of neurological disease. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1975. (a)Google Scholar
  193. Geschwind, N. The clinical setting of aggression in temporal lobe epilepsy. In W. Fields & W. Sweet (Eds.), The neurobiology of violence. Springfield, Ill.: Thomas, 1975.Google Scholar
  194. Geschwind, N., & Levrrsky, W. Human brain: Left-right asymmetries in temporal speech area. Science, 1968, 161, 186–187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Geyer, M. A., Dawsey, W. J., & Mandell, A. J. Differential effects of caffeine, d-amphetamine, and methylphenidate on individual raphe cell fluorescence: A microspectrofluorimetric demonstration. Brain Research, 1975, 85, 135–139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Geyer, M. A., Puerto, A., Dawsey, W. J., Knapp, S., Bullard, W. P., & Mandell, A. J. Histologic and enzymatic studies of the mesolimbic and mesostriatal serotonergic pathways. Brain Research, 1976, 106, 241–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Geyer, M. A., Dawsey, W. J., & Mandell, A. J. Fading: A new cytofluorimetric measure quantifying serotonin in the presence of catecholamines at the cellular level in brain. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 1978, 207, 650–667. (a)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Geyer, M. A., Petersen, L. R., Rose, G. J., Horwlrr, D. D., Light, R. K., Adams, L. M., Zook, J. A., Hawkins, R. L., & Mandell, A. J. The effects of lysergic acid diethylamide and mescaline-derived hallucinogens on sensory-integrative function: Tactile startle. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 1978, 207, 837–847. (b)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Giarman, N. J., & Freedman, D. X. Biochemical aspects of the actions of psychotomimetic drugs. Pharmacological Reviews, 1965, 17, 1–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Gibbs, E. L., Gibbs, F. A., & Fuster, B. Psychomotor epilepsy. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 1948, 60, 331–339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Gibbs, F. A. Psychiatric disorder in temporal lobe epilepsy. In The biology of mental health and disease (Milbank Memorial Fund). New York: Hoeber, 1950.Google Scholar
  202. Gibbs, F. A. Ictal and non-ictal psychiatric disorders in temporal lobe epilepsy. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1951, 113, 522–528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Gillin, J. C., Mendelson, W. B., Sitaram, N., & Wyatt, R. J. The neuropharmacology of sleep and wakefulness. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 1978, 18, 563–579.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Glaser, G. H. The problem of psychosis in psychomotor temporal lobe epileptics. Epilepsia, 1964, 5, 271–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Claus, A. Ober Kombinationen von Schizophreine and Epilepsie. Zeitschrift Gesamte für Neurologie and Psychiatrie, 1931, 135, 450–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Glick, S. D., & Cox, R. D. Nocturnal rotation in normal rats: Correlation with amphetamine-induced rotation and effects of nigrostriatal lesions. Brain Research, 1978, 152, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Glick, S. D., Jerussi, T. P., Waters, D. H., & Green, J. P. Amphetamine-induced changes in striatal dopamine and acetylcholine levels and relationship to rotation (circling behavior) in rats. Biochemical Pharmacology, 1974, 23, 3223–3225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Glick, S. D., Jerussi, T. P., & Zimmerberg, B. Behavioral and neuropharmacological correlates of nigrostriatal asymmetry in rats. In S. Hamad, R. W. Doty, L. Goldstein, J. Jaynes, & G. Krauthamer (Eds.), Lateralization in the nervous system. New York: Academic, 1977.Google Scholar
  209. Gloor, P. Electrophysiological studies on the connections of the amygdaloid nucleus in the cat. Part II: The electrophysiological properties of the amygdaloid projection system. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1955, 7, 243–264.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Glowinski, J., & Axelrod, J. Inhibition of uptake of tritiated noradrenaline in the intact rat brain by imipramine and structurally related compounds. Nature, 1964, 204, 1318–1319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Glowinski, J., Hamon, M., & Héry, F. Regulation of 5-HT synthesis in central serotonergic neurons. In A. J. Mandell (Ed.), New concepts in neurotransmitter regulation. New York: Plenum, 1973.Google Scholar
  212. Goddard, G. V., Mcintyre, D. C., & Leech, C. K. A permanent change in brain function resulting from daily electrical stimulation. Experimental Neurology, 1969, 25, 295–330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Goodwin, F. K., Murphy, D. L., & Bunney, W. E. Lithium carbonate treatment in depression and mania. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1969, 21, 486–496.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Goodwin, F. K., Murphy, D. L. Dunner, D. L., & Bunney, W. E. Lithium response in unipolar versus bipolar depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1972, 129, 44–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Gowers, W. R. Epilepsy and other chronic convulsive diseases. London: Churchill, 1901.Google Scholar
  216. Grahame-Smith, D. G. Studies in vivo on the relationship between brain tryptophan, brain 5-HT synthesis and hyperactivity in rats treated with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor and L-tryptophan. Journal of Neurochemistry, 1971, 18, 1053–1065.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Grantyn, A., Grantyn, R., & Hang, T. L. Hippocampole Einzelzellant auf mesenzephale Reizungen nach Septumlasion. Acta Biologica et Medica Germanica, 1971, 26, 985–996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Grastyan, E., Lissak, K., Madarasz, I., & Donhoffer, H. Hippocampal electrical activity during the development of conditioned reflexes. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1959, 11, 409–430.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Gray, J. A. Sodium amobarbital, the hippocampal theta rhythm, and the partial reinforcement extinction effect. Psychological Review, 1970, 77, 465–480.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Green, J. D., & Shimamoto, T. Hippocampal seizures and their propagation. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 1953, 70, 687–702.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Greenberg, D. A., V’prichard, D. C., & Snyder, S. H. Alpha-noradrenergic receptor binding in mammalian brain: Differential labeling of agonist and antagonist states. Life Sciences, 1976, 19, 69–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Griffith, J. J., Cavanaugh, J., & Oates, J. Psychosis induced by the administration of d-amphetamine to human volunteers. In D. H. Efron (Ed.), Psychotomimetic drugs. New York: Raven, 1970.Google Scholar
  223. Grof, S. Varieties of transpersonal experiences: Observations from LSD psychotherapy. In S. R. Dean (Ed.), Psychiatry and mysticism. Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1975.Google Scholar
  224. Group For The Advancement Of Psychiatry. Psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. Report No. 93, 1975.Google Scholar
  225. Guze, S. B., Woodruff, R. A., & Clayton, P. J. Sex, age, and the diagnosis of hysteria. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1972, 129, 747–748.Google Scholar
  226. Hacker, F. J. Crusaders, criminals, and crazies. New York: Bantam, 1978.Google Scholar
  227. Haigler, H. J., & Aghajanian, G. K. Lysergic acid diethylamide and serotonin: A comparison of effects on serotonergic neurons and neurons receiving a serotonergic input. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 1974, 188, 688–699.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Haldane, E. S., & Ross, G. R. T. (Eds.). The philosophical works of Descartes. London: Cambridge University Press, 1931.Google Scholar
  229. Hammer, W., & Sjöqvist, S. Plasma levels of monomethylated tricyclic antidepressants during treatment with imipramine-like compounds. Life Sciences, 1967, 6, 1895–1903.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Hamon, M., Bourgoin, S., Héry, F., & Glowinski, J. regulation of tryptophan hydroxylase. In E. Usdin, N. Weiner, & M. B. H. Youdim (Eds.), Structure and function of monoamine enzymes. New York: Dekker, 1977.Google Scholar
  231. Hanley, J., Rickles, W. R., Crandall, P. H., & Walter, R. D. Automatic recognition of EEG correlates of behavior in a chronic schizophrenic patient. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1972, 128, 1524–1528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Harding, G. F. A., Lölas-Stepke, F., & Jenner, F. A. Alpha rhythm laterality, lithium, and mood. Lancet, 1976, 2, 237.Google Scholar
  233. Harnad, S., Doty, R. W., Goldstein, L., Jaynes, J., & Krauthamer, G. (Eds.). Lateralization in the nervous system. New York: Academic, 1977.Google Scholar
  234. Harris, T. H. Depression induced by the Rauwolfia compounds. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1957, 113, 950–951.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Hartmann, E. Effects of psychotropic drugs on sleep: The catecholamines and sleep. In M. A. Lipton, A. DiMascio, & K. F. Killam (Eds.), Psychopharmacology: A generation of progress. New York: Raven, 1978.Google Scholar
  236. Hartmann, E., Cravens, J., & List, S. Hypnotic effects of L-tryptophan. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1974, 31, 394–397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Hayek, F. A. The sensory order. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1952.Google Scholar
  238. Haymaker, W., Anderson, E., & Nauta, W. J. H. (Eds.). The hypothalamus. Springfield, Ill.: Thomas, 1969.Google Scholar
  239. Heath, R. G. Studies in schizophrenia. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1954.Google Scholar
  240. Heath, R. G. Pleasure response of human subjects to direct stimulation of the brain: Physiologic and psychodynamic considerations. In R. G. Heath (Ed.), The role of pleasure in behavior. New York: Hoeber,1964.Google Scholar
  241. Heath, R. G. Marihuana. Effects on deep and surface electroencephalograms of man. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1972, 26, 577–584.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Heath, R. G., & Gallant, D. Activity of the human brain during emotional thought. In R. G. Heath (Ed.), The role of pleasure in behavior. New York: Hoeber, 1964.Google Scholar
  243. Heath, R. G., & Mickle, W. A. Evaluation of seven years experience with depth electrode studies in human patients. In E. R. Ramey & D. S. O’Doherty (Eds.), Electrical studies on the unanesthetized brain. New York: Hoeber, 1960.Google Scholar
  244. Hebb, D. O. The organization of behavior, A neurophysiological theory. New York: Wiley, 1949.Google Scholar
  245. Henriksen, S. J., Bloom, F. E., Ling, N., & Guillemin, R. Induction of limbic seizures by endorphins and opiate alkaloids: Electrophysiological and behavioral correlates. Abstracts, The Society for Neuroscience, 1977, 3, 293.Google Scholar
  246. Hill, D. EEG in episodic psychotic and psychopathic behavior: A classification of data. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1952, 4, 419–442.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Hill, D., Pond, D. A., Mitchel, W., & Falconer, M. A. Personality changes following temporal lobectomy for epilepsy. Journal of Mental Science, 1957, 103, 18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Hilton, S. M., & Zbrozyna, A. W. Amygdaloid region for defence reactions and its efferent pathway to the brain stem. Journal of Physiology, 1963, 165, 160–173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Hosson, J. A. The sleep-dream cycle: A neurobiological rhythm. In H. L. Ioachim (Ed.), Pathobiological annals. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1975.Google Scholar
  250. Hobson, J. A., Mccarley, R. W., Wyzinski, P. W., & Pivik, R. T. Reciprocal tonic firing by FTG and LC neurons during the sleep-waking cycle. Sleep Research, 1973, 2, 29–37.Google Scholar
  251. Hobson, J. A., Mccarley, R. W., Pivik, R. T., & Freedman, R. Selective firing by cat pontine brain stem neurons in desynchronized sleep. Journal of Neurophysiology, 1974, 37, 497–511.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Hoch, P. H., & Polatin, P. Pseudoneurotic forms of schizophrenia. Psychiatric Quarterly, 1949, 23, 248–276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Hockman, C. H., Talesmik, J., & Livingston, K. E. Central nervous system modulation of baroceptor reflexes. American Journal of Physiology, 1969, 217, 1681–1689.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Hollister, A. S., Breese, G. R., Kuhn, C. M., Cooper, B. R., & Schanberg, S. M. An inhibitory role for brain serotonin-containing systems in the locomotor effects of d-amphetamine. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 1976, 198, 12–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Horton, P. C. The mystical experience: Substance of an illusion. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 1974, 22, 364–380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Howden, J. C. The religious sentiments in epileptics. Journal of Mental Science, 1872–1873, 18, 491–497.Google Scholar
  257. Hrdina, P. D., & Von Kulmiz, P. Separation-induced behavioural disorder in infra-human primates: An animal model of depression. In Depressive Disorders, Symposium Medicum Hoescht 13. Stuttgart: F. K. Schattauer Verlag, 1978.Google Scholar
  258. Huang, Y. H., Redmond, D. E., Snyder, D. R., & Maas, J. W. In vivo location and destruction of the locus coeruleus in the stumptail macaque. Brain Research, 1975, 100, 157–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Isaacson, R. L., & Wickelgren, W. O. Hippocampal alblation and passive avoidance. Science, 1962, 138, 1104–1106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Jackson, J. H. Clinical remarks on the occasional occurrence of subjective sensations of smell in patients who are liable to epileptiform seizures or who have symptoms of mental derangement, and in others. Lancet, 1866, 1, 659–660.Google Scholar
  261. Jackson, J. H. On right or left-sided spasm at the onset of epileptic paroxysms, and on crude sensation warnings, and elaborate mental states. Brain, 1880–1881, 3, 192–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Jackson, J. H. Remarks on the relations of different divisions of the central nervous system to one another and to parts of the body. British Medical Journal, 1898, 1, 65–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Jackson, J. H., & Colman, W. S. Case of epilepsy with tasting movements and “dreamy state”; very small patch of softening in the left uncinate gyrus. Brain, 1898, 21, 580–584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Jacobs, B. L. Amygdala unit activity as a reflection of functional changes in brain serotonergic neurons. In J. Barchas & E. Usdin (Eds.), Serotonin and behavior. New York: Academic, 1973.Google Scholar
  265. Jacoas, B. L., & Cohen, A. Differential behavioral effects of lesions of the median or dorsal raphe nuclei in rats: Open field and pain-elicited aggression. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1976, 90, 102–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. James, W. The varieties of religious experience. New York: Modern Library, 1929.Google Scholar
  267. Jasinski, D. R., Nutt, J. G., Haertzen, C. A., Griffith, J. D., & Bunney, W. E. Lithium: Effects on subjective functioning and morphine-induced euphoria. Science, 1977, 195, 582–584.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Jerussi, T. P., & Glick, S. D. Drug-induced rotation in rats without lesions: Behavioral and neurochemical indices of a normal asymmetry in nigrostriatal function. Psychopharmacology, 1976, 47, 249–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Johnson, L. A. Amphetamine use in professional football. Doctoral dissertation, United States International University, San Diego, 1972.Google Scholar
  270. Jouvet, M. Recherches sur les structures nerveuses et les mécanismes responsables des différentes phases du sommeil physiologique. Archives Italiennes de Biologie, 1962, 100, 125–206.Google Scholar
  271. Jouvet, M., & Delorme, F. Locus coeruleus et sommeil paradoxal. Societe de Biologie, Paris, Comptes Rendus, 1965, 159, 895–899.Google Scholar
  272. Jouvar, M., & Michel, F. Nouvelles recherches sur les structures responsables de la “phase paradoxale” du sommeil. Journal de Physiologie, 1960, 52, 130–131.Google Scholar
  273. Jouvet, M., Michel, F., & Mounier, D. Analyse électroencephalographigUe comparée du sommeil physiologique chez le chat et chez l’homme. Revue Neurologique, 1960, 103, 180–205.Google Scholar
  274. Judd, L. L., Janowsky, D. S., Segal, D. S., & Huey, L. Y. Comparison of the effects of intravenous naloxone in bipolar depressives and normal controls. New Research Abstracts, American Psychiatric Association Annual Meeting, Atlanta, May 8, 1978.Google Scholar
  275. Karagulla, S., & Robertson, E. E. Physical phenomena in temporal lobe epilepsy and the psychoses. British Medical Journal, 1955, 1, 748–752.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. Karobath, M. Serotonin synthesis with rat brain synaptosomes. Effects of serotonin and monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Biochemical Pharmacology, 1972, 21, 1253–1263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. Kaufman, S. A new cofactor required for the enzymatic conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 1958, 230, 931–939.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. Kaufman, S. Properties of pterin-dependent aromatic amino acid hydroxylases. In Aromatic amino acids in the brain, Ciba Foundation Symposium, 1974, 22, 85–107.Google Scholar
  279. Keller, E. L. Control of saccadic eye movements by midline brain stem neurons. In R. Baker & A. Berthoz (Eds.), Control of gaze by brain stem neurons, Developments in Neuroscience. New York: Elsevier, 1977.Google Scholar
  280. Kernberg, O. F. A psychoanalytic classification of character pathology. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 1971, 18, 800–822.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Kernberg, O. F. Countertransference. In Borderline conditions and pathological narcissism. New York: Aronson, 1975.Google Scholar
  282. Kety, S. S. Possible relation of central amines to behavior in schizophrenic patients. Federation Proceedings, 1961, 20, 894–896.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. Khazan, N., & Sawyer, C. H. Mechanisms of paradoxical sleep as revealed by neurophysiologie and pharmacologie approaches in the rabbit. Psychopharmacologia, 1964, 5, 457–466.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. Killam, K. F., & Killam, E. K. Drug action on pathways involving the reticular formation. In H. H. Jasper (Ed.), Reticular formation of the brain. Boston: Little, Brown, 1958.Google Scholar
  285. Klein, D. F., Zitrin, C. M., & Woerner, M. Antidepressants, anxiety, panic and phobia. In M. A. Lipton, A. DiMascio, & K. F. Killam (Eds.), Psychopharmacology: A generation of progress. New York: Raven, 1978.Google Scholar
  286. Kline, N. S., Li, C. H., Lehmann, H. E., Lajtha, A., Laski, E., & Cooper, T. B. Betaendorphin-induced changes in schizophrenic and depressed patients. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1977, 34, 1111–1113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. Kline, N. S., Gershon, S., & Schou, M. (Eds.). Proceedings, International Lithium Conference—Controversies and Unresolved Issues. New York: Excerpta Medica, 1979.Google Scholar
  288. Klüver, H., & Bucy, P. C. Psychic blindness and other symptoms following bilateral temporal lobectomy in Rhesus monkeys. American Journal of Physiology, 1937, 119, 352–353.Google Scholar
  289. Knapp, S., & Mandell, A. J. Parachlorophenylalanine—Its three phase sequence of interactions with the two forms of brain tryptophan hydroxylase. Life Sciences, 1972, 11, 761–771.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. Knapp, S., & Mandell, A. J. Short-and long-term lithium administration: Effects on the brain’s serotonergic biosynthetic systems. Science, 1973, 180, 645–647.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. Knapp, S., & Mandell, A. J. Effects of lithium chloride on parameters of biosynthetic capacity for 5-hydroxytryptamine in rat brain. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 1975, 193, 812–823.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. Knapp, S., & Mandell, A. J. Cocaine and lithium: Neurobiological antagonism in the serotonin biosynthetic system in rat brain. Life Sciences, 1976, 18, 679–684. (a)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. Knapp, S., & Mandell, A. J. Coincidence of blockade of synaptosomal 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake and decrease in tryptophan hydroxylase activity: Effects of fenfluramine. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 1976, 198, 123–132. (b)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. Knapp, S., & Mandell, A. J. Conformational influences on brain tryptophan hydroxylase by submicromolar calcium: Opposite effects of equimolar lithium. Journal of Neural Transmission, 1979, 15, 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. Knapp, S., Mandell, A. J., & Geyer, M. A. Effects of amphetamines on regional tryptophan hydroxylase activity and synaptosomal conversion of tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptamine in rat brain. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 1974, 189, 676–689.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. Knight, R. P. Borderline states. In R. Knight & R. Friedman (Eds.), Psychoanalytic psychiatry and psychology. New York: International Universities Press, 1953.Google Scholar
  297. Knook, H. L. The fibre-connections of the forebrain. Philadelphia: Davis, 1966.Google Scholar
  298. Kohler, W. Gestalt psychology (new ed.). New York: Liveright, 1970.Google Scholar
  299. Kripke, D. F., & Sonnenschein, D. A 90-minute daydream cycle. Sleep Research, 1973, 2, 187.Google Scholar
  300. Krishna, G. Kundalini: The evolutionary energy in man. Berkeley, Calif.: Shambhala, 1971.Google Scholar
  301. Kupfer, D. J. REM latency: A psychobiological marker for primary depressive disease. Biological Psychiatry, 1976, 11, 159–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. Landolt, H. Über Verstimmungen, Dämmerzustande und Schizophrene Zustandsbilder bei Epilepsie. Schweizer Arciv für Neurologie, Neurochirurgie und Psychiatrie, 1955, 76, 313–327.Google Scholar
  303. Lazare, A. The hysterical character in psychoanalytic theory—Evolution and confusion. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1971, 25, 131–137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. Lehmann, H. E., & Ban, T. A. Studies with new drugs in the treatment of convulsive disorders. Internationale Zeitschrift fur Klinische Pharmakologie, Therapie and Toxikologie (Munchen), 1968, 1, 230–234.Google Scholar
  305. Lemay, M., & Culebras, A. Human brain-morphologic differences in the hemispheres by carotid arteriography. New England Journal of Medicine, 1972, 287, 168–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. Lennox, W. G. Phenomena and correlates of psychomotor triad. Neurology, 1951, 1, 357–371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. Lennox, W. Epilepsy and related disorders, Vol. 1. London: Churchill, 1960.Google Scholar
  308. Leonhard, K., Korff, I., & Schulz, H. Die Temperaments in den Familien der monopolaren and bipolaren phasischen Psychosen. Psychiatria et Neurologia, 1962, 143, 416–434.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. Lesse, H., Heath, R. G., Mickle, W. A., Monroe, R. R., & Miller, W. H. Rhinencephalic activity during thought. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1955, 122, 433–446.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. Lester, B. K., & Edwards, R. J. EEG fast activity in schizophrenic and control subjects. International Journal of Neuropsychiatry, 1966, 2, 143–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  311. Leuba, J. H. A study in the psychology of religious phenomena. American Journal of Psychology, 1896, 7, 309–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. Levi-Strauss, C. Structural anthropology. London: Harmondsworth, 1972.Google Scholar
  313. Lewin, L. Phantastica—Narcotic and stimulating drugs. New York: Dutton, 1964.Google Scholar
  314. Lewis, P. R., & Shute, C. C. D. The cholinergic limbic system: Projections to hippocampal formation, medial cortex, nuclei of ascending cholinergic reticular system, and the subfornical organ and the supra-optic crest. Brain, 1967, 90, 521–540.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. Lilly, J. The center of the cyclone. New York: Julian, 1972.Google Scholar
  316. Lorens, S. A., & Guldberg, H. C. Regional 5-hydroxytryptamine following selective midbrain raphe lesions in the rat. Brain Research, 1974, 78, 45–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. Lundberg, A. Integration in the reflex pathway. In R. Granit (Ed.), Nobel symposium. I: Muscular afferents and motor control. Stockholm: Almquist and Wiksell, 1966.Google Scholar
  318. Maas, J. W., Redmond, D. E., & Gaven, R. Effects of serotonin depletion on behavior in monkeys. In J. Barchas & E. Usdin (Eds.), Serotonin and behavior. New York: Academic, 1973.Google Scholar
  319. Mabille, H. Hallucinations religieuses et délire religieux transitore dans l’épilepsie. Annales Médico-Psychologiques, 1889, 57, 76–81.Google Scholar
  320. Maclean, P. D. Psychosomatic disease and the “visceral brain.” Recent developments bearing on the Papez theory of emotion. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1949, 11, 338–353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  321. Maclean, P. D. Chemical and electrical stimulation of hippocampus in unrestrained animals. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 1957, 78, 113–127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  322. Maclean, P. D. Chemical and electrical stimulation of hippocampus in unrestrained animals. II: Behavioral findings. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 1957, 78, 128–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  323. Maclean, P. D. The limbic system with respect to self-preservation and the preservation of the species. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1958, 127, 1–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. Maclean, P. D. The limbic system with respect to two basic life principles. Second Conference on the Central Nervous System and Behavior. New York: Josiah Macy Foundation, 1959.Google Scholar
  325. Maclean, P. D., & Ploog, D. W. Cerebral representation of penile erections. Journal of Neurophysiology, 1962, 25, 29–55.Google Scholar
  326. Macrae, D. On the nature of fear, with reference to its occurrence in epilepsy. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1954, 120, 385–393.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  327. Magoun, H. The ascending reticular formation. In E. Adrian, F. Bremer, & H. H. Jasper (Eds.), Brain mechanisms and consciousness. Oxford, England: Blackwell, 1954.Google Scholar
  328. Magoun, H., & Rhines, R. An inhibitory mechanism in the bulbar reticular formation. Journal of Neurophysiology, 1946, 9, 165–171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  329. Mahesh Yogi, M. On the Bhagavad-Gita—A new translation and commentary. New York: Penguin, 1969.Google Scholar
  330. Malamud, N. The epileptogenic focus in temporal lobe epilepsy from a pathological standpoint. Archives of Neurology, 1966, 14, 190–195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  331. Malamud, N. Psychiatric disorder with intracranial tumors of limbic system. Archives of Neurology, 1967, 17, 113–123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  332. Malamud, N. Organic brain disease mistaken for psychiatric disorder: A clinicopathologic study. In D. F. Benson & D. Blumer (Eds.), Psychiatric aspects of neurologic disease. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1975.Google Scholar
  333. Mandell, A. J. Hormonal and metabolic correlates of behavioral states in man. In A. J. Mandell & M. P. Mandell (Eds.), Psychochemical research in man. New York: Academic, 1969.Google Scholar
  334. Mandell, A. J. Neurobiological mechanisms of presynaptic metabolic adaptation and their organization: Implications for a pathophysiology of the affective disorders. In A. J. Mandell (Ed.), Neurobiological mechanisms of adaptation and behavior. New York: Raven, 1975.Google Scholar
  335. Mandell, A. J. The nightmare season. New York: Random House, 1976.Google Scholar
  336. Mandell, A. J. Redundant mechanisms regulating brain tyrosine and tryptophan hydroxylases. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 1978, 18, 461–493.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  337. Mandell, A. J. The neurochemistry of religious insight and ecstasy. In K. Berrin (Ed.), Art of the Huichol Indians. New York: Abrams, 1978Google Scholar
  338. Mandell, A. J., & Bullard, W. P. Striate tetrahydrobiopterin concentration: A pharmacologically regulatory factor in the biosynthesis of dopamine. In Depressive disorders, Symposium Medicum Hoescht 13. Stuttgart: F. K. Schattauer Verlag, 1978.Google Scholar
  339. Mandell, A. J., & Bullard, W. P. Regional and subcellular distribution and factors in the regulation of reduced pterins in rat brain. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 1978, 14, 46–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  340. Mandell, A. J., & Knapp, S. Cocaine, amphetamine, and lithium interactions: Neurobiological correlates. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1976, 281, 441–455.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  341. Mandell, A. J., & Knapp, S. Regulation of serotonin biosynthesis in brain: Role of the high affinity uptake of tryptophan into serotonergic neurons. Federation Proceedings, 1977, 36, 2142–2148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  342. Mandell, A. J., & Knapp, S. Adaptive regulation in central biogenic amine neurons. In M. A. Lipton, A. DiMascio, & K. F. Killam (Eds.), Psychopharmacology: A generation of progress. New York: Raven, 1978.Google Scholar
  343. Mandell, A. J., Knapp, S., & Geyer, M. A. Lithium decreases and cocaine increases the bilateral asymmetry of serotonin in mesostriatal and mesolimbic systems associated with changes in the kinetic properties of tryptophan hydroxylase. In E. Usdin (Ed.), Catecholamines: Basic and clinical frontiers. New York: Pergamon, 1979.Google Scholar
  344. Mandell, A. J., & Mandell, M. P. Biochemical aspects of rapid eye movement sleep. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1965, 122, 391–401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  345. Mandell, A. J., Chapman, L. F., Rand, R. W., & Walter, R. D. Plasma corticosteroids: Changes in concentration after stimulation of hippocampus and amygdala. Science, 1963, 139, 1212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  346. Mandell, A. J., Spooner, C. E., & Brunet, D. Whither the sleep transmitter? Biological Psychiatry, 1969, 1, 13–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  347. Mandell, A. J., Segal, D. S., & Kuczenski, R. T. Metabolic adaptation to antidepressant drugs—Implications for pathophysiology and treatment in psychiatry. In A. J. Friedhoff (Ed.), Catecholamines and behavior, Vol. 2. New York: Plenum, 1975.Google Scholar
  348. Mandell, M. P., Mandell, A. J., & Jacobson, A. Biochemical and neurophysiological studies of paradoxical sleep. In J. Wortis (Ed.), Recent advances in biological psychiatry. New York: Plenum, 1964.Google Scholar
  349. Mason, J. W. The central nervous system regulation of ACTH secretion. In H. H. Jasper (Ed.), Reticular formation of the brain. Boston: Little, Brown, 1958.Google Scholar
  350. Mason, J. W., Nauta, W. J. H., Brady, J. V., Robinson, J. A., & Sachar, E. J. The role of limbic system structures in the regulation of ACTH release. Acta Neurovegitativa, 1961, 23, 4–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  351. Masters, W. H., & Johnson, V. E. Human sexual response. Boston: Little, Brown, 1966.Google Scholar
  352. Maugh, T. H. Marihuana: The grass may no longer be greener. Science, 1974, 185, 683–685.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  353. Mays, L. E., & Best, P. J. Hippocampal unit responses to tonal stimuli during arousal from sleep and in awake rats. Experimental Neurology, 1971, 47, 268–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  354. Mccall, R. B., & Aghajanian, G. K. Serotonergic facilitation of facial motoneuron excitation: A modulatory effect. Abstracts, Society for Neuroscience, 1978, No. 1422, 447.Google Scholar
  355. Mccarley, R. W., & Hobson, J. A. Clustered discharges of FTG neurons during desynchronized sleep. Sleep Research, 1974, 3, 24–32.Google Scholar
  356. Mccarley, R. W., & Hobson, J. A. Discharge patterns of cat pontine brain stem neurons during desynchronized sleep. Journal of Neurophysiology, 1975, 38, 751–766.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  357. Mcewen, B. S., Zigmond, R. E., & Gerlach, J. L. Sites of steroid binding and action in the brain. In G. H. Bourne (Ed.), Structure and function of nervous tissue, Vol. 5. New York: Academic, 1972.Google Scholar
  358. Mcewen, B. S., Wallach, G., & Magnus, C. Corticosterone binding to hippocampus: Immediate and delayed influences of the absence of adrenal secretion. Brain Research, 1974, 70, 321–334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  359. Mcewen, B. S., Gerlach, J. L., & Micco, D. J. Putative glucocorticoid receptors in hippocampus and other regions of the rat brain. In R. L. Isaacson & K. H. Pribram (Eds.), The hippocampus, Vol. 1. New York: Plenum, 1975.Google Scholar
  360. Mcginty, D. J., & Harper, R. M. 5-HT-containing neurons: Unit activity during sleep. Sleep Research, 1972, 1, 27–41.Google Scholar
  361. Mcginty, D. J., & Harper, R. M. Dorsal raphe neurons: Depression of firing during sleep in cats. Brain Research, 1976, 101, 569–575.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  362. Meldrum, B. S., & Brierley, J. B. Neural loss and gliosis in the hippocampus following repetitive epileptic seizures induced in adolescent baboons by allylglycine. Brain Research, 1972, 48. 361–365.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  363. Mendels, J. Lithium in the treatment of depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1976, 133, 373–378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  364. Mignone, R. J., Donnelly, E. F., & Sadowsky, D. Psychological and neurological comparisons of psychomotor and nonpsychomotor epileptic patients. Epilepsia, 1970, 11, 345–359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  365. Miller, J. G. Living systems. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1978.Google Scholar
  366. Milner, B. Interhermispheric differences in the localization of psychological processes in man. British Medical Bulletin, 1971, 27, 272–277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  367. Milner, B. Hemispheric specialization: Scope and limits. In F. O. Schmitt & F. G. Worden (Eds.), The neurosciences—Third study program. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  368. Milson, J. A., & Pycock, C. J. Effects of drugs acting on cerebral 5-hydroxytryptamine mechanisms in dopamine-dependent turning behavior in mice. British Journal of Pharmacology, 1976, 56, 77–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  369. Mirsky, A. F. Studies of the effects of brain lesions on social behavior in Macaca mulatta: Methodological and theoretical considerations. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1966, 85, 785–794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  370. Money, J. Phantom orgasm in the dreams of paraplegic men and women. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1960, 3, 373–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  371. Monroe, R. R. Episodic behavioral disorders: Schizophrenia or epilepsy? Archives of General Psychiatry, 1959, 1, 205–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  372. Monroe, R. R. Episodic behavioral disorders. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1970.Google Scholar
  373. Monroe, R. R., & Heath, R. G. Effects of lysergic acid and various derivatives on depth and cortical electrograms. Journal of Neuropsychiatry, 1961, 3, 75–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  374. Monroe, R. R., & Mickle, W. A. Alpha chloralose-activated electroencephalograms in psychiatric patients. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1967, 144, 59–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  375. Monroe, R. R., Heath, R. G., Miller, W., & Fontana, C. EEG activation with chloralosane. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1956, 8, 279–287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  376. Moore, R. Y. Monoamine neurons innervating the hippocampal formation and septum: Organization and response to injury. In R. L. Isaacson & K. H. Pribram (Eds.), The hippocampus, Vol. 1. New York: Plenum, 1975.Google Scholar
  377. Moore, R. Y., & Bloom, F. E. Central cetecholamine neuron systems: Anatomy and physiology of the dopamine systems. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 1978, 1, 129–169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  378. Moore, R. Y., & Heller, A. Monoamine levels and neuronal degeneration in the rat brain following lateral hypothalamic lesions. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 1967, 156, 12–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  379. Morales, F. R., Roig, J. A., Monte, J. M., Macador, O., & Budelli, J. Septal unit activity and hippocampal EEG during the sleep-wakefulness cycle of the rat. Physiology and Behavior, 1971, 6, 563–567.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  380. Morel, B. A. Discussion sur l’épilepsie larvée. Annales Medico-Psychologiques, 1873, 31, 155–163.Google Scholar
  381. Morgane, P. J., & Stern, W. C. Chemical anatomy of brain circuits in relation to sleep and wakefulness. Advances in Sleep Research, 1974. 1, 1–131.Google Scholar
  382. Mosxo, S. S., & Jacobs, B. L. Midbrain raphe neurons: Spontaneous activity and response to light. Physiology and Behavior, 1974, 13, 589–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  383. Mulder, D. W., & Daly, D. Psychiatric symptoms associated with lesions of temporal lobe. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1952, 150, 173–176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  384. Mullan, S., & Penfield, W. Illusions of comparative interpretations and emotions. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 1959, 81, 269–284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  385. Murphy, D. L., Baker, M., Goodwin, F. K., Miller, H., Kotin, J., & Bunney, W. E. L-Tryptophan in affective disorders: Indolamine changes and differential clinical effects. Psychopharmacologia, 1974, 34, 11–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  386. Murto, J. N., Roffwarg, H. P., & Kaufman, E. Alterations in the nocturnal sleep cycle resulting from LSD. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1966, 21, 313–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  387. Nadler, J. V., Perry, B. W., & Cotman, C. W. Intraventricular kainic acid preferentially destroys hippocampal pyramidal cells. Nature, 1978, 271, 676–677.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  388. Nagatsu, T., Levitt, M., & Udenfriend, S. Tyrosine hydroxylase—The initial step in norepinephrine biosynthesis. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 1964, 239, 2910–2917.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  389. Nakai, Y., & Takaori, S. Influence of norepinephrine-containing neurons derived from the locus coeruleus on lateral geniculate neuronal activities of cats. Brain Research, 1974, 71, 47–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  390. Naranjo, C. The healing journey. New York: Ballantine, 1975.Google Scholar
  391. Nauta, W. J. H. Hippocampal projections and related neural pathways to the mid-brain in the cat. Brain, 1958, 81, 319–340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  392. Neckers, L. M., Biggio, G., Moja, G., & Meek, J. L. Modulation of brain tryptophan hydroxylase by brain tryptophan content. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 1977, 201, 110–116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  393. Nieoullon, A., Cheramy, A., & Glowinski, J. Nigral and striatal dopamine release under sensory stimuli. Nature, 1977, 269, 340–342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  394. Noyes, R., Dempsey, G., Blum, A., & Cavanaugh, G. Lithium treatment in depression. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 1974, 15, 187–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  395. Nyback, H. V., Walters, J. R., Aghajanian, G. K., & Roth, R. H. Tricyclic antidepressants: Effects on the firing rate of brain noradrenergic neurons. European Journal of Pharmacology, 1975, 32, 302–312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  396. Oke, A. Keller, R., Mefford, I., & Adams, R. N. Lateralization of norepinephrine in human thalamus. Science, 1978, 200, 1411–1413.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  397. Okuma, T., Kishimoto, A., Indue, K., Matsumoto, H., Ogura, A., Matsushita, T., Nakao, T., & Ogura, C. Anti-manic and prophylactic effects of carbamazepine (Tegretol®) on manic-depressive psychosis. Folie Psychiatrica et Neurologica Japonica, 1973, 27, 283–297.Google Scholar
  398. Osts, K., & Haraldsson, E. At the hour of death. New York: Avon, 1977.Google Scholar
  399. Overall, J. E., Hollister, L. E., Johnson, M., & Pennington, V. Nosology of depression and differential response to drugs. Journal of The American Medical Association, 1966, 195, 946–948.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  400. Pahnke, W. N. Drugs and mysticism. International Journal of Parapsychology, 1966, 8, 257–294.Google Scholar
  401. Palkovits, M., Saavedra, J. M., Jacobowitz, D. M., Kizer, J. S., & Brownstein, M. J. Serotonergic innervation of the forebrain: Effect of lesions on serotonin and tryptophan hydroxylase levels. Brain Research, 1977, 130, 121–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  402. Papez, J. W. A proposed mechanism of emotion. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 1937, 38, 725–743.Google Scholar
  403. Parent, A., & Olivier, A. Comparative histochemical study of the corpus striatum. Journal fur Hirnforschung, 1970, 12, 75–81.Google Scholar
  404. Passouant, P., Cadilhac, M., & Passouant-Fontaine, T. Influence en cours de sommeil spontané de la stimulation électrique réticulaire et des stimuli sensoriels sur les rhythmes hippocampiques du chat. Journal de Physiologie, 1955, 47, 715–718.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  405. Pavlov, I. P. Les sentiments d’emprise and the ultraparadoxical phase. Journal de Physiologie, 1933, 30, 9–10.Google Scholar
  406. Paykel, E. S., Myers, J. K., Dienelt, M. N., Klerman, G. L., Lindenthal, J. J., & Pepper, M. P. Life events and depression: A controlled study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1969, 21, 753–760.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  407. Pearce, J. B. Fenfluramine in mania. Lancet, 1973, 1, 427.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  408. Penfield, W. Memory mechanisms. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 1952, 67, 178–191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  409. Penfield, W. The role of the temporal cortex in certain psychical phenomena. Twenty-ninth Maudsley Lecture. Journal of Mental Science, 1955, 101, 451–465.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  410. Penfield, W. The excitable cortex in conscious man, Fifth Sherrington Lecture. Springfield, Ill.: Thomas, 1958.Google Scholar
  411. Penfield, W. The interpretive cortex. Science, 1959, 129, 1719–1725.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  412. Penfield, W. Engrams in the human brain. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, 1968, 61, 831–840.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  413. Penfield, W. The mystery of the mind. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  414. Penfield, W., & Mathieson, G. Memory. Autopsy findings and comments on role of the hippocampus in experiential recall. Archives of Neurology, 1974, 31, 145–154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  415. Penfield, W., & Perot, P. The brain’s record of auditory and visual experience. A final summary and discussion. Brain, 1963, 86, 595–696.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  416. Perris, C. A study of bipolar (manic-depressive) and unipolar recurrent depressive psychosis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 1966, 42, Supplement 194.Google Scholar
  417. Perris, C. A study of cycloid psychoses. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 1974, Supplement 253.Google Scholar
  418. Persson, S. A. The effect of LSD and 2-bromo-LSD on the striatal DOPA accumulation after decarboxylase inhibition in rats. European Journal of Pharmacology, 1977, 43, 73–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  419. Peters, V. H. Sexualstoerungen bei psychomotorischer Epilepsie. Journal of Neurovisceral Relations Supplement, 1971, 10, 491–497.Google Scholar
  420. Pfaff, D. W., Silva, M.T. A., & Weiss, J. M. Telemetered recording of hormone effects on hippocampal neurons. Science, 1971, 172, 394–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  421. Piaget, J. Main trends in interdisciplinary research. New York: Harper & Row, 1973.Google Scholar
  422. Pickel, V., Segal, M., & Bloom, F. E. A radioautographic study of efferent pathways of the nucleus locus coeruleus. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 1974, 155, 15–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  423. Polanyi, M. Personal knowledge. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1958.Google Scholar
  424. Pompeiano, O. Mechanisms of sensorimotor integration during sleep. Progress in Physiological Psychology, 1970, 3, 1–179.Google Scholar
  425. Pond, D. A. Psychiatric aspects of epilepsy. Journal of the Indian Medical Profession, 1957, 3, 1441.Google Scholar
  426. Popper, K. R. The logic of scientific discovery. London: Hutchinson, 1959.Google Scholar
  427. Popper, K. R. Conjectures and refutations. London: Routledge and Paul, 1963.Google Scholar
  428. Popper, K. R., & Eccles, J. C. The self and its brain. New York: Springer International, 1978.Google Scholar
  429. Post, R. M. Progressive changes in behavior and seizures following chronic cocaine administration: Relationship to kindling and psychosis. In E. H. Ellinwood & M. M. Kilbey (Eds.), Cocaine and other stimulants. New York: Plenum, 1977.Google Scholar
  430. Post, R. M., Kopanda, R. T., & Black, K. E. Progressive effects of cocaine on behavior and central amine metabolism in rhesus monkeys: Relationship to kindling and psychosis. Biological Psychiatry, 1976, 11, 403–419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  431. Prange, A. J., Wilson, I. C., Lynn, C. W., Alltop, L. B., & Stikeleather, R. A. L-Tryptophan in mania: Contribution to a permissive hypothesis of affective disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1974, 30, 56–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  432. Pribram, K. H. The limbic systems, efferent control of neural inhibition and behavior. In W. Adey & T. Tokizane (Eds.), Progress in brain research. New York: Elsevier, 1967.Google Scholar
  433. Prien, R. F., Caffey, E. M., & Klett, C. J. Lithium carbonate and imipramine in prevention of affective episodes. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1973, 29, 420–425.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  434. Purpura, D. P., & Gonzalez-Monteagudo, O. Acute effects of methoxypyridoxine on hippocampal end-blade neurons; an experimental study of “special pathoclisis” in the cerebral cortex. Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, 1960, 19, 421–432.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  435. Pycock, C., & Anzelark, G. LSD and dopamine receptors. Nature, 1975, 257, 69–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  436. Racine, R., Tuff, L., & Zaide, J. Kindling, unit discharge patterns and neural plasticity. Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences, November 1975, 395–403.Google Scholar
  437. Radulovacki, M., & Adey, W. R. The hippocampus and the orienting reflex. Experimental Neurology, 1965, 12, 68–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  438. Raisman, G. The connections of the septum. Brain, 1966, 89, 317–348.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  439. Raisman, G. A comparison of the mode of termination of the hippocampal and hypothalamic afferents to the septal nuclei as revealed by electron microscopy of degeneration. Experimental Brain Research, 1969, 7, 317–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  440. Randrup, A., & Munkvad, I. Stereotyped activities produced by amphetamine in several animal species and man. Psychopharmacologia, 1967, 11, 300–310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  441. Rattenbury, J. E. The conversion of the Wesleys. London: Epworth, 1938.Google Scholar
  442. Rechtschaffen, A., & Maron, L. The effect of amphetamine on the sleep cycle. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1964, 16, 438–445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  443. Redmond, D. E., Huang, Y. H., Snyder, D. R., & Maas, J. W. Behavioral effects of stimulation of the nudeus locus coeruleus in the stump-tailed monkey Macaca orctoides. Brain Research, 1976, 116, 502–510.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  444. Rifkin, A., Quitkin, F., Carrillo, C., Blumberg, A., & Klein, D. Lithium carbonate in emotionally unstable character disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1972, 27, 519–523.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  445. Roffwarg, H., Dement, W., Muzio, J., & Fisher, C. Dream imagery: Relationship to rapid eye movements of sleep. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1962, 7, 235–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  446. Rossi, G. F., & Rosadini, G. Experimental analysis of cerebral dominance in man. In C. H. Milikan & F. L. Darley (Eds.), Brain mechanisms underlying speech and language. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1967.Google Scholar
  447. Rosvold, H. E., Mirsky, A. F., & Pribram, K. H. Influence of amygdalectomy on social behavior in monkeys. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1954, 47, 173–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  448. Roth, R. H., & Salzman, P. M. Role of calcium in the depolarization-induced activation of tyrosine hydroxylase. In E. Usdin, N. Weiner, & M. B. H. Youdim (Eds.), Structure and function of monoamine enzymes. New York: Dekker, 1977.Google Scholar
  449. Rubens, A. B. Anatomical asymmetries of human cerebral cortex. In S. Hamad, R. W. Doty, L. Goldstein, J. Jaynes, & G. Krauthamer (Eds.), Lateralization in the nervous system. New York: Academic, 1977.Google Scholar
  450. Rubin, R. T., & Mandell, A. J. Adrenal cortical activity in pathological states: A review. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1966, 123, 387–400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  451. Rubin, R. T., Mandell, A. J., & Crandall, P. H. Corticosteroid responses to limbic stimulation in man: Localization of stimulus sites. Science, 1966, 153, 767–768.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  452. Ruch-Monachon, M. A., Jalfre, M., & Haefely, W. Drugs and PGO waves in the lateral geniculate body of the curarized cat. II: PGO wave activity and brain 5-hydroxytryptamine. Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie, 1976, 219, 269–286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  453. Rumbaugh, D. M., & Gill, T. V. The mastery of language-type skills by the chimpanzee. Proceedings of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1976, 280, 562–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  454. Saavedra, J. M., & Zivin, J. Tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine-ß-hydroxylase: distribution in discrete areas of the rat limbic system. Brain Research, 1975, 105, 517–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  455. Sachar, E. Corticosteroids in depressive illness. A longitudinal psychoendocrine study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1967, 17, 544–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  456. Sachar, E. J. Psychological homeostasis and endocrine function. In A. J. Mandell & M. P. Mandell (Eds.), Psychochemical research in man. New York: Academic, 1969.Google Scholar
  457. Sachar, E. J., Mackenzie, J. M., & Binstock, W. A. Corticosteroid responses to psychotherapy of depressions. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1967, 16, 461–470.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  458. Sahakian, B. J., Robbins, T. W., Morgan, M. D., & Iversen, S. D. The effects of psychomotor stimulants on stereotypy and locomotor activity in socially deprived and control rats. Brain Research, 1975, 84, 195–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  459. Sangdee, C., & Franz, D. N. Lithium-induced enhancement of 5-HT transmission at a central synapse. Communications in Psychopharmacology, in press.Google Scholar
  460. Sano, K., & Malamud, N. Clinical significance of sclerosis of the cornu ammonis. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 1953, 79, 40–49.Google Scholar
  461. Sargant, W. Battle for the mind. A physiology of conversion and brain-washing. London: Heineman, 1957.Google Scholar
  462. Sargant, W. The physiology of faith. British Journal of Psychiatry, 1969, 115, 505–518.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  463. Sato, M. Hippocampal seizure and secondary epileptogenesis in the “kindled” cat preparations. Folia Psychiatrica et Neurologica Japonica, 1975, 29, 239–250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  464. Sawyer, C. H., & Kawakami, M. Characteristics of behavioral and electroencephalographic after-reactions to copulation and vaginal stimulation in the female rabbit. Endocrinology, 1959, 65, 622–630.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  465. Scheel-Krüger, J. Behavioral and biochemical comparison of amphetamine derivatives, cocaine, benztropine and tricyclic antidepressants. European Journal of Pharmacology, 1972, 18, 63–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  466. Scheel-Krüger, J., Braestrup, C., Nielson, M., Golembiowska, K., & Mocilnicka, E. Cocaine—Discussion on the role of dopamine in the biochemical mechanism of action. In E. H. Ellinwood & M. M. Kilbey (Eds.), Cocaine and other stimulants. New York: Plenum, 1977.Google Scholar
  467. Schildkraut, J. J. Rationale of some approaches used in biochemical studies of the affective disorders: The pharmacological bridge. In A. J. Mandell & M. P. Mandell (Eds.), Psychochemical research in man. New York: Academic, 1969.Google Scholar
  468. Schwarcz, R., Scholz, D., & Coyle, D. T. Structure-activity relations for the neurotoxicity of kainic acid derivatives and glutamate analogues. Neuropharmacology, 1978, 17, 145–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  469. Schwartz, G. E., Davidson, R. J., & Maer, R. Right hemisphere lateralization for emotion in the human brain: Interactions with cognition. Science, 1975, 190, 286–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  470. Scott, J. S., & Masland, R. L. Occurrence of continuous symptoms in epileptic patients. Neurology, 1953, 3, 297–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  471. Sedman, D., & Hopkinson, G. The psychopathology of mystical and religious conversion in psychiatric patients. Confinia Neurologica, 1966, 9, 1–19, 65–77.Google Scholar
  472. Segal, D. S. Differential effects of serotonin depletion on amphetamine-induced locomotion and stereotypy. In E. H. Ellinwood & M. M. Kilbey (Eds.), Cocaine and other stimulants. New York: Plenum, 1977.Google Scholar
  473. Segal, D. S., & Janowsky, D. S. Psychostimulant-induced behavioral effects: Possible models of schizophrenia. In M. A. Lipton, A. DiMascio, & K. F. Killam (Eds.), Psychopharmacology: A generation of progress. New York: Raven, 1978.Google Scholar
  474. Segal, D. S., & Mandell, A. J. Long-term administration of amphetamine: Progressive augmentation of motor activity and stereotypy. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior, 1974, 2, 249–255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  475. Segal, D. S., Kuczenski, R. T., & Mandell, A. J. Strain differences in behavior and brain tyrosine hydroxylase activity. Behavioral Biology, 1972, 7, 75–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  476. Segal, D. S., Kuczenski, R. T., & Mandell, A. J. Theoretical implications of drug-induced adaptive regulation for a biogenic amine hypothesis of affective disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 1974, 9, 147–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  477. Segal, D. S., Callaghan, M., & Mandell, A. J. Alterations in behavior and catecholamine biosynthesis induced by lithium. Nature, 1975, 254, 58–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  478. Segal, M. Physiological and pharmacological evidence for a serotonergic projection to the hippocampus. Brain Research, 1975, 94, 115–131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  479. Segal, M., & Bloom, F. E. The action of norepinephrine in the rat hippocampus I. Iontophoretic studies. Brain Research, 1974, 72, 79–97. (a)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  480. Segal, M., & Bloom, F. E. The action of norepinephrine in the rat hippocampus II. Activation of the input pathway. Brain Research, 1974, 72, 99–114. (b)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  481. Segal, M., & Bloom, F. E. The action of norepinephrine in the rat hippocampus. III: Hippocampal cellular responses to locus coeruleus stimulation in the awake rat. Brain Research, 1976, 107, 499–511.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  482. Serafetinides, E. A. The significance of the temporal lobes and of hemispheric dominance in the production of the LSD-25 symptomatology in man. Neuropsychologia, 1965,3, 69–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  483. Sheehan, G. A. Advice and philosophy for runners. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1978.Google Scholar
  484. Sherwin, J. Clinical and EEG aspects of temporal lobe epilepsy with behavior disorder, the role of cerebral dominance. McLean Hospital Journal, June 1977, 40–50.Google Scholar
  485. Shields, J. Some recent developments in psychiatric genetics. Archiv fur Psychiatrie and Nervenkranheiten (Berlin), 1975, 220, 347–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  486. Siegel, J. M., Mcginty, D. J., & Breedlove, S. M. Sleep and waking activity of pontine giganto cellular field neurons. Experimental Neurology, 1977, 56, 553–573.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  487. Siggins, G. R. Electrophysiological role of dopamine in striatum: Excitatory of inhibitory. In M. A. Lipton, A. DiMascio, & K. F. Killam (Eds.), Psychopharmacology: A generation of progress. New York: Raven, 1978.Google Scholar
  488. Simantov, R., Kuhar, M. D., Uhl, G. R., & Snyder, S. H. Opioid peptide enkephalin: Immunohistochemical mapping in rat central nervous system. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 1977, 74, 2167–2171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  489. Sitaram, N., Mendelson, W. B., Wyatt, R. J., & Gillin, J. C. The time-dependent induction of REM sleep and arousal by physostigmine infusion during normal human sleep. Brain Research, 1977, 122, 562–567.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  490. Sitaram, N., Weingartner, H., Caine, E. D., & Gillin, J. C. Choline selective entrancement of serial learning and encoding of low imagery words in man. Life Sciences, 1978, 22, 1555–1566.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  491. Slater, E., & Beard, A. W. The schizophrenia-like psychoses of epilepsy. I: Psychiatric aspects. British Journal of Psychiatry, 1963, 109, 95–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  492. Slater, E., & Moran, P. The schizophrenia-like psychoses of epilepsy: Relation between ages of onset. British Journal of Psychiatry, 1969, 115, 599–600.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  493. Small, J. G., & Small, D. F. A controlled study of mental disorders associated with epilepsy. Biological Psychiatry, 1967, 9, 171–181.Google Scholar
  494. Smith, D. E. (Ed.). Amphetamine abuse. Journal of Psychedelic Drugs, 1969, 2, Issue 2.Google Scholar
  495. Smith, H. The religions of man. New York: Harper & Row, 1958.Google Scholar
  496. Snyder, S. H. Catecholamines in the brain as mediators of amphetamine psychosis. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1972, 27, 169–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  497. Sommer, W. Erkrankung des Ammonshorns als aetiologisches Moment der Epilepsie. Archiv für Psychiatrie and Nervenkrankheiten (Berlin), 1880, 10, 631–675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  498. Spencer, W. A., & Kandel, E. R. Hippocampal neuron responses to selective activation of recurrent collaterals of hippocampofugal axons. Experimental Neurology, 1961, 4, 149–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  499. Sperry, R. W. Lateral specialization in the surgically separated hemispheres. In F. O. Schmitt & F. G. Worden (Eds.), The neurosciences-Third study program. Cambridge, Mass.: The M.I.T. Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  500. Spielmeyer, W. Die Pathogenese des epileptisches Krampfes. Zeitschrift für die Gesamte Neurologie and Psychiatrie, 1927, 109, 501–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  501. Stanford, A. The Bhagavad Gita—A new verse translation. New York: Seabury, 1970.Google Scholar
  502. Starbuck, E. D. A study of conversion. American Journal of Psychology, 1897, 8, 268–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  503. Stein, L., & Belluzzi, J. D. Brain endorphins: Possible mediators of pleasureable states. In E. Usdin, W. E. Bunney, Jr. N. S. Kline (Eds.), Endorphins in mental health research. London: Macmillan, 1979.Google Scholar
  504. Straughan, D. W., & Legge, K. F. The pharmacology of amygdaloid neurones. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 1965, 17, 675–677.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  505. Strauss, H. Epileptic disorders. In American handbook of psychiatry, Vol. 2. New York: Basic Books, 1959.Google Scholar
  506. Swieczkowski, J. B., & Walker, C. E. Sexual behavior correlates of female orgasm and marital happiness. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1978, 166, 335–342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  507. Tagliamonte, A., Tagliamonte, P., Forn, J., Perez-Cruet, J., Krishna, G., & Gessa, G. L. Stimulation of brain serotonin synthesis by dibutyryl-cyclic AMP in rats. Journal of Neurochemistry, 1971, 18, 1191–1196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  508. Tamminga, C. A., Chase, T. N., & Crayton, M. GABA agonist effect in schizophrenia and tardive dyskinesia. Thirty-Third Annual Meeting, Abstracts, The Society of Biological Psychiatry, Atlanta, May 3–7, 1978.Google Scholar
  509. Taylor, D. E. Aggression and epilepsy. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 1969, 13, 229–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  510. Tecce, J. J., & Cole, J. O. Amphetamine effect in man: Paradoxical drowsiness and lowered electrical brain activity. Science, 1974, 185, 451–453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  511. Terzian, H. Observations on the clinical symptomatology of bilateral partial or total removal of the temporal lobes in man. In B. Maitland & P. Bailey (Eds.), Temporal lobe epilepsy. Springfield, Ill.: Thomas, 1958.Google Scholar
  512. Terzian, H. Behavioral and EEG effects of intracarotid sodium amytal injections. Acta Neurochirurgica, 1964, 12, 230–240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  513. Terzian, H., & Ore, G. D. Syndrome of Klüver and Bucy—Reproduced in man by bilateral removal of the temporal lobes. Neurology, 1955, 5, 373–380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  514. Tizard, B. The personality of epileptics: A discussion of the evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 1962, 59, 196–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  515. Tunks, E. R., & Dermer, S. W. Carbamazepine in the dyscontrol syndrome associated with limbic system dysfunction. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1977, 164, 56–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  516. Tupin, J. P. Hysterical and cyclothymic personalities. In Personality disorders—Diagnosis and management. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1974.Google Scholar
  517. Underwood, A. C. Conversion: Christian and non-Christian. A comparative and psychological study. London: Allen and Unwin, 1925.Google Scholar
  518. Unger, S. M. Mescaline, LSD, psilocybin and personality change. In D. Solomon (Ed.), LSD—The consciousness-expanding drug. New York: Putnam, 1964.Google Scholar
  519. Ungerstedt, U. Stereotaxic mapping of the monoamine pathways in the rat brain. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 1971, Supplement No. 367, 1–48.Google Scholar
  520. Urca, G., Frenk, H., Liebeskind, J. C., & Taylor, A. N. Morphine and enkephalin: Analgesic and epileptic properties. Science, 1977, 197, 83–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  521. Valenstein, E. S., & Nauta, W. J. H. A comparison of the distribution of the fornix system in the rat, guinea pig, and monkey. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 1959, 113, 337–364.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  522. Vanderwolf, C. H., Bland, B. H., & Whislaw, I. Q. Diencephalic, hippocampal, and neocortical mechanisms in voluntary behavior. In J. Master (Ed.), Efferent organization and the integration of behavior. New York: Academic, 1973.Google Scholar
  523. Vanegas, H., & Flynn, J. P. Inhibition of cortically elicited movement by electrical stimulation of the hippocampus. Brain Research, 1968, 11, 489–506.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  524. Van Kammen, D. P., & Murphy, D. L. Attenuation of the euphoriant and activating effects of d-and 1-amphetamine by lithium carbonate treatment. Psychopharmacology, 1975, 44, 215–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  525. Vanpraag, H., Korf, J., & Schut, D. Cerebral monoamines and depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1973, 28, 827–831.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  526. Van Valkenburg, C., Lowry, M., Winokur, G., & Cadoret, R. Depression spectrum disease versus pure depressive disease. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1977, 165, 341–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  527. Vetulani, J., Stawarz, R. J., & Sulser, F. Adaptive mechanisms of the noradrenergic cyclic AMP generating system in the limbic forebrain of the rat: Adaptation to persistent changes in the availability of norepinephrine (NE). Journal of Neurochemistry, 1976, 27, 661–666.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  528. Vinogradova, O. S. Specific and nonspecific response systems in the formation of conditioned responses in man. In M. Cole & I. Maltzman (Eds.), A handbook of contemporary soviet psychology. New York: Basic Books, 1969.Google Scholar
  529. Vinogradova, O. S. Some suggestions on neuronal mechanisms of memory and on the role of the limbic system in registration of information. Zhurnal Vysshei Nervnoi Deyatel’nosti, 1973, 48, 305–372.Google Scholar
  530. Vinogradova, O. S. Functional organization of the limbic system in the process of registration of information: Facts and hypothesis. In R. L. Isaacson & K. H. Pribram (Eds.), The hippocampus. New York: Plenum, 1975.Google Scholar
  531. Von Frey, M. Beiträege zur Sinnesphysiologie der Haut. Leipzig Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Physische Klasse. Berichte, 1895, 47, 166–184.Google Scholar
  532. Walker, A. E. Man and his temporal lobes. Surgical Neurology, 1973, 1, 69–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  533. Walker, A. E., & Blumer, D. Long term behavioral effects of temporal lobectomy for temporal lobe epilepsy. McLean Hospital Journal, June 1977.Google Scholar
  534. Wallace, R. K. The physiological effects of transcendental meditation: A proposed fourth major state of consciousness. Ph.D. thesis, Department of Physiology, University of California at Los Angeles, 1970.Google Scholar
  535. Wallace, R. K., & Benson, H. The physiology of meditation. Scientific American, 1972, 226(2), 84–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  536. Wallace, R. K., Benson, H., & Wilson, A. F. A wakeful hypometabolic physiologic state. American Journal of Physiology, 1971, 221, 795–799.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  537. Walton, H. J., Foulds, G. A., Littman, S. K., & Presly, A. S. Abnormal personality. British Journal of Psychiatry, 1970, 116, 497–510.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  538. Wang, R. Y., & Aghajanian, G. K. Andromically identified serotonergic neurons in the rat midbrain raphe: Evidence for collateral inhibition. Brain Research, 1977, 132, 186–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  539. Wang, R. Y., & Aghajanian, G. K. Inhibition of neurons in the amygdala by dorsal raphe stimulation: Mediation through a direct serotonergic pathway Brain Research, 1977, 120, 85–102. (b)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  540. Warbritton, J. D., Stewart, R. M., & Baldessarini, R. J. Decreased locomotor activity and attenuation of amphetamine hyperactivity with intraventricular infusion of serotonin in the rat. Brain Research, 1978, 143, 373–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  541. Watkins, N. W. N. Hobbes’s system of ideas. London: Hutchinson, 1965.Google Scholar
  542. Waxman, S. G., & Geschwind, N. Hypergraphia in temporal lobe epilepsy. Neurology, 1974, 24, 629–636.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  543. Waxman, S. G., & Geschwind, N. The interictal behavior syndrome of temporal lobe epilepsy. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1975, 32, 1580–1586.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  544. Weinberg, S. The first three minutes. New York: Basic Books, 1977.Google Scholar
  545. Weinstein, E. A., & Kahn, R. C. Denial of illness: Symbolic and physiologic aspects. Springfield, Ill.: Thomas, 1955.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  546. Weintraub, W. Obsessive-compulsive and paranoid personalities. In Personality disorders—Diagnosis and management. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1974.Google Scholar
  547. Westermeyer, J., Bush, J., & Wintrob, R. A review of the relationship between dysphoria, pleasure, and human bonding. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 1978, 39, 415–424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  548. Wilson, C. Poetry and mysticism. San Francisco: City Lights Books, 1969.Google Scholar
  549. Winokur, G. Delusional disorder (paranoia). Comprehensive Psychiatry, 1977, 18, 511, 521.Google Scholar
  550. Winokur, G., & Clayton, P. Family history studies: Sex differences and alcoholism in primary affective illness. British Journal of Psychiatry, 1966, 113, 973–979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  551. Winters, W. D. A neuropharmacological theory of psychosis. In A. J. Mandell & M. P. Mandell (Eds.), Psychochemical research in man. New York: Academic, 1969.Google Scholar
  552. Winters, W. D. The continuum of CNS excitatory states and hallucinosis. In R. K. Siegel & L. J. West (Eds.), Hallucinations; Behavior, experience, and theory. New York: Wiley, 1975.Google Scholar
  553. Winters, W. D., Ferrar-Allado, T., Guzman-Flores, C., & Alcarez, M. The cataleptic state induced by ketamine: A review of the neuropharmacology of anesthesia. Neuropharmacology, 1972, 11, 303–316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  554. Yuwiler, A., Oldendorf, W. H., Geller, E., & Braun, L. Effect of albumin binding and amino acid competition on tryptophan uptake into brain. Journal of Neurochemistry, 1977, 28, 1015–1023.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  555. Zeitlin, A. B., Cottrell, T. L., & Lloyd, F. A. Sexology of the paraplegic male. Fertility and Sterility, 1957, 8, 337–348.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arnold J. Mandell
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of California, San DiegoLa JollaUSA

Personalised recommendations