The Psychophysiological Model of Meditation and Altered States of Consciousness: A Critical Review

  • Marjorie Schuman


In recent years, a growing literature has addressed itself to the psychophysiological bases of altered states of consciousness (ASCs). An unprecedented interest in meditation, biofeedback, and other techniques for altering consciousness reflects in part the widespread notion that science has begun to understand the physiological bases of these states. Thus, based on research involving practitioners of Yoga, Zen, or Transcendental Meditation (TM), meditation has been considered a unique psychophysiological state, associated with a distinct configuration of autonomic and electrocortical changes. For example, it has been proposed on the basis of these data that the practice of Transcendental Meditation leads to the experience of a fourth major state of consciousness, distinct from waking, dreaming, and nondreaming sleep (Wallace, 1970).


Sleep Onset Theta Activity Meditation Practice Altered State Alpha Rhythm 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aaronson, B. S. ASCID trance, hypnotic trance, just trance. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 1961, 16(2), 110–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adey, W. R. Spectral analysis of EEG data from animals and man during alerting, orienting, and discriminative responses. In C. R. Evans and T. B. Mulholland (Eds.), Attention in neurophysiology. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1969.Google Scholar
  3. Anand, B. K., Chhina, G. S., and Singh, B. Some aspects of electroencephalographic studies in yogis. Elect roencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1961, 13, 452–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bagchi, B. K., and Wenger, M. A. Electrophysiological correlates of some yogi exercises. Electroencepholography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1957, 7, 132–149.Google Scholar
  5. Banquet, J. P. Spectral analysis of the EEG in meditation. Electroencepholography and Clinical Neurophysiology,1973, 35, 143–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beatty, J., Greenberg, A., Diebler, W., and Ohanlon, J. Operant control of occipital theta rhythm affects performance in a radar monitoring task. Science, 1974, 183, 871–873.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beatty, J., and Kornfeld, C. Relative independence of conditioned EEG changes from cardiac and respiratory activity. Physiology and Behavior, 1972, 9, 733–736.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Becker, H. S. History, culture, and subjective experience: An exploration of the social bases of drug-induced experiences. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 1967, 8(3), 163–176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Benson, H., Beary, J. F., and Carol, M. P. The relaxation response. Psychiatry, 1974, 37(1), 37–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bourgignon, E. Trance dance. In J. White (Ed.), The highest state of consciousness. New York: Doubleday/Anchor, 1972.Google Scholar
  11. Brown, B. B. Recognition of aspects of consciousness through association with EEG alpha activity represented by a light-signal. Psychophysiology, 1970, 6, 442–452.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brown, B. B. Awareness of EEG-subjective activity relationships detected within a closed feedback system. Psychophysiology, 1971, 7, 451–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brown, B. B. Stress and the art of biofeedback. New York: Bantam, 1977.Google Scholar
  14. Brown, C. C., Fischer, R., Wagman, A. M. I., Horrom, N., and Marks, P. The EEG in meditation and therapeutic touch healing. Journal of Altered States of Consciousness, in press.Google Scholar
  15. Brown, D. P. Levels of concentrative meditation. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 1977, 25(4), 236–273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Budzynski, T. H., Stoyva, J. M., and Adler, C. S. Feedback-induced muscle relaxation: Application to tension headache. Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry,1970, 1, 205–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Budzynski, T. H. Some applications of biofeedback induced twilight states. Fields within Fields within Fields, 1972, 5, 105–114.Google Scholar
  18. Burke, O. M. Among the dervishes. London: Octagon Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  19. Campbell, A. Seven states of consciousness. New York: Perennial Library, Harper and Row, 1974.Google Scholar
  20. Curtis, W. D., and Wessberg, H. W. A comparison of heart rate, respiration, and galvanic skin response among meditators, relaxers, and controls. Journal of Altered States of Consciousness, 1976, 2(4), 319–324.Google Scholar
  21. Das, J. P. Yoga and hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 1963, 11(1), 31–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Das, N. N., and Gastaut, H. Variations de l’activité électrique du cerveau, du coeur, et des muscles squelettiques au cours de la méditation et de l’extase yogique. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology,1955, Suppl. 6, 211–219.Google Scholar
  23. Davidson, J. M. The physiology of meditation and mystical states of consciousness. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 1976, 19, 345–379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Davidson, R. J. Specificity and patterning in biobehavioral systems: Implications for behavior change. American Psychologist, 1978, 35, 430–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Davidson, R. J., and Coleman, D. J. The role of attention in meditation and hypnosis: A psychobiological perspective on transformations of consciousness. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis,1977, 25(4), 291–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Davidson, R. J., and Schwartz, G. E. The psychobiology of relaxation and related states: A multi-process theory. In D. Mostofsky (Ed.), Behavior control and modification of physiological activity. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1976.Google Scholar
  27. Davis, H., Davis, P. A., Loomis, A. L., Harvey, E. N., and Hobart, G. Human brain potentials during the onset of sleep. Journal of Neurophysiology, 1937, 1, 24–37.Google Scholar
  28. Davis, K. L., Hollister, L. E., Overall, J., Johnson, A. and Train, K. Physostigmine: Effects on cognition and affect in normal subjects. Psychopharmacology, 1976, 51, 23–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Degood, D. E., and Chisholm, R. C. Multiple response comparison of parietal EEG and frontalis EMG biofeedback. Psychophysiology, 1977, 14(3), 258–265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Deikman, A. Deautomatization and the mystical experience. Psychiatry, 1966, 29, 324–338.Google Scholar
  31. Deikman, A. The meaning of everything. In R. Ornstein (Ed.), The nature of human consciousness. San Francisco: Freeman, 1973.Google Scholar
  32. Dewan, E. M. Occipital alpha rhythm, eye position, and lens accommodation. Nature, 1967, 241, 975–977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Edelman, R. I. Effects of progressive relaxation on autonomic processes. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1970, 26, 421–425.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Elson, B. D., Hauri, P., and Cunis, D. Physiological changes in yoga meditation. Psychophysiology,1977, 14(1), 52–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Evans, F. J. Hypnosis and sleep: Techniques for exploring cognitive activity during sleep. In E. Fromm and R. E. Shor (Eds.), Hypnosis: Research developments and perspectives. London: Paul Elek (Scientific Books), 1973.Google Scholar
  36. Fenwick, P. B. C., Donaldson, S., Gillis, L., Bushman, J., Fenton, G. W., Perry, I., Tilsley, C., and Serafinowicz, H. Metabolic and EEG changes during transcendental meditation: An explanation. Biological Psychology, 1977, 5(2), 101–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fischer, R. A cartography of the ecstatic and meditative states. Science, 1971, 174, 897–904.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Floor, E. R. The brain in samadhi: An hypothesis. Unpublished manuscript, Harvard University, 1976.Google Scholar
  39. Foulkes, D., and Vogel, G. Mental activity at sleep onset. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1965, 70, 231–243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gellhorn, E., and Kiely, W. F. Mystical states of consciousness: Neurophysiological and clinical aspects. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease,1972, 154, 299–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gellhorn, E., and Loofbourrow, G. N. Emotions and emotional disorders. New York: Harper and Row, 1964.Google Scholar
  42. Goldie, L. and Green, J. M. Changes in mode of respiration as an indication of level of awareness. Nature, 1961, 189, 581–582.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Goleman, D. The Buddha on meditation and states of consciousness. Part 1: The teachings. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 1972, 4(1), 1–44.Google Scholar
  44. Goleman, D. The varieties of the meditation experience. New York: Dutton, 1977.Google Scholar
  45. Goyeche, J. R. M., Chihara, T., and Shimizu, H. Two concentration methods: A preliminary comparison. Psychologia, 1972, 15, 110–111.Google Scholar
  46. Green, E. Biofeedback for mind-body self-regulation: Healing and creativity. In D. Shapiro, T. X. Barker, L. V. DiCara, J. Kamiya, and J. Stoyva (Eds.), Biofeedback and self-control. Chicago: Aldine, 1972.Google Scholar
  47. Green, E., Green, A., and Walters, E. D. Voluntary control of internal states: Psychological and physiological. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 1970, 1, 1–26.Google Scholar
  48. Greenfield, T. K. Individual differences and mystical experience in response to three forms of meditation. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1977.Google Scholar
  49. Grossberg, J. M. Brain wave feedback experiments and the concept of mental mechanisms. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 1972, 3, 245–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hardt, J. V., and Kamiya, J. Some comments on Plotkin’s self-regulation of EEG alpha. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 1976, 105, 100–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hassett, J., and Schwartz, G. E. Relationships between heart rate and occipital alpha: A biofeedback approach. Psychophysiology, 1975, 12, 228.Google Scholar
  52. Hebert, R., Sr Lehmann, D. Theta bursts: An EEG pattern in normal subjects practicing the transcendental meditation technique. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neuro-physiology, 1977, 42, 397–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hilgard, E. Neodissociation theory of multiple cognitive control systems. In G. E. Schwartz and D. Shapiro (Eds.), Consciousness and self-regulation, Vol. 1. New York: Plenum, 1976.Google Scholar
  54. Hirai, T. Psychophysiology of Zen. Tokyo: Igaku Shoin, 1974.Google Scholar
  55. Hunt, H. F., and Chefurka, C. M. A test of the psychedelic model of altered states of consciousness. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1976, 33, 867–876.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Jevening, R., Wilson, A. F., Smith, W. R., and Morton, M. Redistribution of blood flow in transcendental meditation. Paper presented at the Society for Psychophysiological Research, Toronto, 1975.Google Scholar
  57. Johnson, L. C. A psychophysiology for all states. Psychophysiology, 1970, 6, 501–516.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kamiya, J. Operant control of the EEG alpha and some of its reported effects on consciousness. In C. Tart (Ed.), Altered states of consciousness. New York: Wiley, 1969.Google Scholar
  59. Kamiya, J. Autoregulation of the EEG alpha rhythm: A program for the study of consciousness. In T. X. Barber, L. V. Dicara, J. Kamiya, N. E. Miller, D. Shapiro, and J. Stoyva (Eds.), Biofeedback and self-control. Chicago: Aldine, 1976.Google Scholar
  60. King, C. The states of human consciousness. New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1963.Google Scholar
  61. Krippner, S. Hypnosis and attention: A review. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis,1974, 16(3), 166–177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kubose, S. K. An experimental investigation of psychological aspects of meditation. Psychologia, 1976, 19(1), 1–10.Google Scholar
  63. Legrand, P., Toubol, M., Barrabino, J., Darcourt, G., and Fadeuilhe, A. Contingent negative variation in meditation. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1977, 43(4), 532 (abstract).Google Scholar
  64. Lehmann, D. Multichannel topography of human alpha EEG fields. Electroencephalography of Clinical Neurophysiology, 1971, 31, 439–449.Google Scholar
  65. Liberson, W. T., and Liberson, C. W. EEG records, reaction times, eye movements, respiration, and mental content during drowsiness. Recent Advances in Biological Psychiatry, 1966, 8, 295–302.Google Scholar
  66. Lindsley, D. Psychological phenomena and the electroencephalogram. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1952, 4, 443–456.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Ludwig, A. Altered states of consciousness. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1966, 15, 228–234.Google Scholar
  68. Luria, A. R., Sr Homskaya, E. D. Frontal lobes and the regulation of arousal processes. In D. I. Mostofsky (Ed.), Attention: Contemporary theory and analysis. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1970.Google Scholar
  69. Luthe, W. (Ed.). Autogenic training. New York: Crune and Stratton, 1969.Google Scholar
  70. Lutzenberger, W., Birbaumer, N., and Steinmetz, P. Simultaneous biofeedback of heart rate and frontal EMG as a pretraining for the control of EEG theta activity. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 1976, 1(4), 395–410.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lynch, J. J., and Paskewitz, D. A. On the mechanisms of the feedback control of human brain wave activity. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease,1971, 153, 205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Maslow, A. H. Towards a humanistic biology. American Psychologist, 1969, 24, 724–735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Michaels, R. R., Huber, M. J., and Mccann, D. S. Evaluation of transcendental meditation as a method of reducing stress. Science, 1976, 192, 1242–1244.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Mills, G. K., and Campbell, K. A critique of Gellhorn and Kielÿ s mystical states of consciousness. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1974, 159(3), 191–195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Mulholland, T. B. The concept of attention and the electroencephalographic alpha rhythm. In C. R. Evans and T. M. Mulholland (Eds.), Attention in neurophysiology. New York: Appleton-Century-Croft, 1969.Google Scholar
  76. Mulholland, T., and Peper, E. Occipital alpha and accommodative vergence, pursuit tracking, and fast eye movements. Psychophysiology, 1971, 8(5), 556–575.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mulholland, T., and Runnals, S. Increased occurrence of EEG alpha during increased attention. Journal of Psychology, 1962, 54, 317–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Naranjo, C. The domain of meditation. In J. White (Ed.), What is meditation? New York: Doubleday/Anchor, 1974.Google Scholar
  79. Nowlis, D. P., and Kamiya, L. The control of electroencephalographic alpha rhythms through auditory feedback and the associated mental activity. Psychophysiology, 1970, 6, 476–484.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Orme-Johnson, D. W. Autonomic stability and transcendental meditation. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1973, 35, 341–349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Orme-Johnson, D. W. EEG coherence during transcendental consciousness. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1977, 43(4), 581 (abstract).Google Scholar
  82. Pagano, R. R., Rose, R. M., Stivers, R. M., and Warrenburg, S. Sleep during transcendental meditation. Science, 1976, 191(4224), 308–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Paskewitz, D., Lynch, J. J., Orne, M., and Costello, J. The feedback control of alpha activity: Conditioning or disinhibition. Psychophysiology, 1970, 6, 637–638.Google Scholar
  84. Paul, G. Physiological effects of relaxation training and hypnotic suggestion. Journal of Abnormal Psychology,1969, 74, 425–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Pelletier, K. R. Neurophysiological parameters of alpha, theta, and cardiovascular control. Paper presented at Western Psychological Association, San Francisco, April 24–27, 1974.Google Scholar
  86. Pelletier, K. R., and Peper, E. The chutzpah factor in altered states of consciousness. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 1976, 17(1), 63–74.Google Scholar
  87. Peper, E., and Ancoli, S. The two endpoints of an EEG continuum of meditation-Alpha/ theta and fast beta. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 1977, 2(3), 289–290 (abstract).Google Scholar
  88. Plotkin, W. B. On the self-regulation of the occipital alpha rhythm control strategies, states of consciousness, and the role of physiological feedback. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1976, 105, 66–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Plotkin, W. B., and Cohen, R. Occipital alpha and the attributes of the “alpha experience.” Psychophysiology,1976, 13(1), 16–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Plotkin, W. B., Mazer, C., and Loewy, D. Alpha enhancement and the likelihood of an alpha experience. Psychophysiology,1976, 13(5), 466–471.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Porges, S. W. Peripheral and neurochemical parallels of psychopathology: A psychophysiological model relating autonomic imbalance to hyperactivity, psychopathy, and autism. Advances in Child Development and Behavior,1976, 11, 35–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Pribram, K. H., and Mcguinness, D. Arousal, activation, and effort in the control of attention. Psychological Review, 1975, 82(2), 116–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Rajneesh, B. S. Meditation: The art of ecstasy. New York: Harper and Row, 1976.Google Scholar
  94. Rechtschaffen, A. Scientific method in the study of altered states of consciousness with illustrations from sleep and dream research. In Altered States of Consciousness: Current Views and Research Problems. Washington, D.C.; Drug Abuse Council, 1975.Google Scholar
  95. Rogers, L. J. Human EEG response to certain rhythmic patterned auditory stimuli, with possible relations to EEG lateral asymmetry measures and EEG correlates of chanting. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Department of Physiology, University of California, Los Angeles, 1976.Google Scholar
  96. Schacter, D. L. The hypnagogic state: A critical review of the literature. Psychological Bulletin, 1976, 83(3), 452–481.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Schwartz, G. E. Meditation as an altered trait of consciousness: Current findings on stress reactivity, attentional flexibility, and creativity. Paper read at the 82nd Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, New Orleans, September 1974.Google Scholar
  98. Schwartz, G. E., Shaw, G., and Shapiro, D. Specificity of alpha and heart rate control through feedback. Psychophysiology, 1972, 9, 269 (abstract).Google Scholar
  99. Shapiro, D. A biofeedback strategy in the study of consciousness. In N. E. Zinberg (Ed.), Alternate states of consciousness. New York: Free Press, 1977.Google Scholar
  100. Shor, R. E. Hypnosis and the concept of the generalized reality-orientation. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 1959, 13, 582–602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Sittenfeld, P., Budzynski, T., and Stoyva, J. Differential shaping of EEG theta rhythms. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 1976, 1, 31–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Stoyva, J. Biofeedback techniques and the conditions for hallucinatory activity. In F. J. McGuigan and R. A. Schoonover (Eds.), The psychophysiology of thinking. New York: Academic, 1973.Google Scholar
  103. Stoyva, J. M., and Budzynski, T. H. Cultivated low arousal-An antistress response? In L. V. DiCara (Ed.), Recent advances in limbic and autonomic nervous systems research. New York: Plenum, 1974.Google Scholar
  104. Stoyva, J. M., and Kamiya, J. Electrophysiological studies of dreaming as the prototype of a new strategy in the study of consciousness. Psychological Review, 1968, 75, 192–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Suter, S., Johnson, T., Franconi, L., and Smith, D. Independent biofeedback control of EEG alpha and skin conductance. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 1977, 2(3), 295 (abstract).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Tart, C. States of consciousness. New York: Dutton, 1975.Google Scholar
  107. Tebecis, A. K. A controlled study of the EEG during transcendental meditation: Comparison with hypnosis. Folia Psychiatrica et Neurologica Japonica,1975, 29(4), 305–313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Tebecis, A. K. Eye movements during transcendental meditation. Folia Psychiatrica et Neurologica Japonica, 1976, 30, 487–493.Google Scholar
  109. Tebecis, A. K., Provins, K. A., Farnbach, R. W., and Pentony, P. Hypnosis and the EEG. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease,1975, 161(1), 1–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Tecce, J. J. Attention and evoked potentials in man. In D. I. Mostofsky (Ed.), Attention: Contemporary theory and analysis. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1970.Google Scholar
  111. Timmons, B., Salamy, J., Kamiya, J., and Girton, D. Abdominal-thoracic respiratory movements and levels of arousal. Psychonomic Science, 1972, 27, 173–175.Google Scholar
  112. Travis, T., Kondo, C., and Knott, J. Alpha enhancement research: A review. Biological Psychiatry, 1975, 10(1), 69–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Travis, T. A., Kondo, C. Y., and Knott, J. R. Heart rate, muscle tension, and alpha production of transcendental meditators and relaxation controls. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 1976, 1(4), 387–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Van Nuys, D. A novel technique for studying attention during meditation. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 1971, 2, 125–134.Google Scholar
  115. Vogel, G., Foulkes, D., and Trosman, H. Ego functions and dreaming during sleep onset. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1966, 14, 238–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Wallace, R. K. Physiological effects of transcendental meditation. Science, 1970, 167, 1751–1754.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Wallace, R. K., Benson, H., and Wilson, A. F. A wakeful hypometabolic physiologic state. American Journal of Physiology, 1971, 221, 795.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Walrath, L. C., and Hamilton, D. W. Autonomic correlates of meditation and hypnosis. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 1975, 17(3), 190–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Walsh, D. Interactive effects of alpha feedback and instructional set on subjective state. Psychophysiology, 1974, 11(4), 428–435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Warrenburg, S., Pagano, R., Woods, M., and Hlastala, M. Oxygen consumption, H.R., EMG, and EEG during progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and transcendental meditation (TM). Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 1977, 2(3), 321. (abstract)Google Scholar
  121. Wenger, M. A., and Bagchi, B. K. Studies of autonomic functions in practitioners of yoga in India. Behavioral Science, 1961, 6, 312–323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Wickramasekara, I. Biofeedback behavior therapy and hypnosis: Potentiating the verbal control of behavior for clinicians. Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1976.Google Scholar
  123. Woolfolk, R. L. Psychophysiological correlates of meditation. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1975, 32, 1326–1333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Yamaguchi, Y. Frontal theta burst and personality factors. Elect roencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1977, 43(4), 528 (abstract).Google Scholar
  125. Younger, J., Adriance, W., and Berger, R. Sleep during transcendental meditation. In M. H. Chase, W. C. Stern, and P. L. Walter (Eds.), Sleep Research, Vol. 2. Los Angeles: Brain Information Service/Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, 1973 (abstract).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marjorie Schuman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of California at Los AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations