Advertisement

The Psychobiology of Sexual Experience

  • Julian M. Davidson

Abstract

A rich and complexly interwoven matrix of psychosocial and physiological variables influence those transformations of consciousness that we label sexual. Much more than for other “instinctive” behaviors, sexual activity manifestly involves a set of unique physiological correlates, interacting with a highly prized array of subjective experiences. The physiological, behavioral, and experiential events undergo slow shifts of intensity and quality as well as sharp transformations from one “state” to another. Furthermore, this is a realm of human experience directly accessible to all and obviously essential to the preservation of the species. For these reasons, sexual phenomena are of great potential interest to students of psychophysiology and can provide unique and important models for psychobiological research.

Keywords

Sexual Behavior Sexual Experience Sexual Arousal Sexual Response Premature Ejaculation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adler, N. T., Davis, P. G., & Komisarak, B. R. Variation in the size and sensitivity of a genital sensory field in relation to the estrous cycle in rats. Hormones and Behavior,1977, 9, 334–344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adler, N., & Bermant, G. Sexual behavior of male rats: Effects of reduced sensory feedback. Journal of Comparative Physiology and Psychology, 1966, 61, 240–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anon. Effects of sexual activity on beard growth in man. Nature (London), 1970, 226, 869–870.Google Scholar
  4. Arnold, M. Physiological differentiation of emotional states. Psychological Reviews, 1945, 52, 35–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ax, A. F. The physiological differentiation between fear and anger in humans. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1953, 13, 433–442.Google Scholar
  6. Bancroft, J. Deviant sex behavior: Modification and assessment. Oxford: Clarendon, 1974.Google Scholar
  7. Bard, P. A diencephalic mechanism for the expression of rage with special reference to the sympathetic nervous system. American Journal of Physiology, 1928, 84, 490–515.Google Scholar
  8. Barfield, R. J., & Chen, J. Activation of estrous behavior in ovariectomized rats by intracerebral implants of estradiol benzoate. Endocrinology, 1977, 101, 1716–1725.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barfield, R. J., & Geyer, L. A. The ultrasonic postejaculatory vocalization and the post-ejaculatory period of the male rat. Journal of Comparative Physiology and Psychology, 1975, 88, 723–734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barfield, R. J., Wilson, C., & Mcdonald, P. G. Sexual behavior: Extreme reduction of postejaculatory refractory periods by midbrain lesions in male rats. Science, 1975, 189, 147–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Beach, F. A. Hormones and behavior. New York: Hoeber, 1948.Google Scholar
  12. Beach, F. A. Characteristics of masculine sex drive. In M. R. Jones (Ed.), Nebraska sym-posium on motivation. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1956, pp. 1–32.Google Scholar
  13. Beach, F. A. Cerebral and hormonal control of reflexive mechanisms involved in copula-tory behavior. Physiological Review, 1967, 47, 289–316.Google Scholar
  14. Beach, F. A. Animal models for human sexuality. In Sex, hormones, and behavior. New York: CIBA Foundation, Symposium 62 (new series), Elsevier, 1979.Google Scholar
  15. Beach, F. A., Westbrook, W. H., & Clemens, L. G. Comparisons of the ejaculatory responses—Men and animals. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1966, 28, 749–763.Google Scholar
  16. Bell, C. Sexual modification of cardiovascular regulation. In M. Sandler & G. L. Gessa (Eds.), Sexual behavoir: Pharmacology and biochemistry. New York: Raven, 1975.Google Scholar
  17. Bereiter, D. A., & Barker, D. J. Facial receptive fields of trigeminal neurons: Increased size following estrogen treatment in female rats. Neuroendocrinology, 1975, 18, 115–124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bermant, G., & Davidson, J. M. Biological bases of sexual behavior. New York: Harper & Row, 1974.Google Scholar
  19. Beumont, P. J. V., Bancroft, J. H. J., Beard Wood, C. J., & Russell, G. F. M. Behavioral changes after treatment with testosterone: Case report. Psychology of Medicine, 1972, 2, 70–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Blake, C. A., & Sawyer, C. H. Effects of vaginal stimulation on hypothalamic multiple-unit activity and pituitary LH release in the rat. Neuroendocrinology, 1972, 10, 358–370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Blumer, D. Hypersexual episodes in temporal lobe epilepsy. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1970, 126, 1099–1106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bremer, J. Asexualization. New York: Macmillan, 1959.Google Scholar
  23. Campbell, B. Neurophysiology of the clitoris. In T. P. Lowry & T. S. Lowry (Eds.), The clitoris. St. Louis: W. H. Green, 1976.Google Scholar
  24. Cannon, W. B. The James-Lange theory of emotion: A critical examination and an alternative theory. American Journal of Psychology, 1927, 39, 106–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Carlsson, S. G., & Larsson, K. Mating in male rats after local anesthetization of the glans penis. Zeitschrift für Tierphysiologie, 1964, 21, 854–856.Google Scholar
  26. Chang, J. The Tao of love and sex. New York: Dutton, 1977.Google Scholar
  27. Cherney, E. F., & Bermant, G. Role of stimulus female novelty in the rearousal of copulation in male laboratory rats (Rattus norwegicus). Animal Behavior, 1970, 18, 567–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chevalier-Skolnikoff, S. Male-female, female-female and male-male sexual behavior in the stumptail monkey, with special attention to the female orgasm. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 1973, 3, 95–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cohen, H. D., Rosen, R. C., & Goldstein, L. Electroencephalographic laterality changes during human sexual orgasm. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 1976, 5, 189–199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cohen, H. D., & Shapiro, A. Vaginal blood flow during sleep. Paper presented at the 10th annual meeting of the Association for the Psychophysiological Study of Sleep, Santa Fe, N.M., March 1970.Google Scholar
  31. Coleridge, H. M., Coleridge, J. C. G., & Rosenthal, F. Prolonged inactivation of cortical pyramidal tract neurones in cats by distension of the carotid sinus. Journal of Physiology (London), 1976, 256, 635–649.Google Scholar
  32. Cooper, K. K. An electrophysiological study of the effects of castration on the afferent system of the glans penis of the cat. Doctoral dissertation, New York University, 1969.Google Scholar
  33. Cooper, K. K., & Aronson, L. R. Effects of castration on neural afferent responses from the penis of the domestic cat. Physiology and Behavior, 1974, 12, 93–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Crowley, W. R., Rodriguez-Sierra, J. F., & Komisaruk, B. R. Monoaminergic mediation of the antinociceptive effect of vaginal stimulation in rats. Brain Research, 1977, 137, 67–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Danesino, V., & Martella, E. Modern conceptions of corpora cavernosa function in the vagina and clitoris. In T. P. Lowry & T. S. Lowry (Eds.), The clitoris. St. Louis: W. H. Green, 1976.Google Scholar
  36. Davidson, J. M. Activation of the male rat’s sexual behavior by intracerebral implantation of androgen. Endocrinology, 1966, 79, 783–794.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Davidson, J. M. Hormones and reproductive behavior. In S. Levine (Ed.), Hormones and behavior. New York: Academic, 1972.Google Scholar
  38. Davidson, J. M. The physiology of meditation and mystical states of consciousness. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 1976, 19, 345–380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Davidson, J. M. Neuro-hormonal bases of male sexual behavior. In R. O. Greep (Ed.), Reproductive physiology II (International Review of Physiology, Vol. 13 ). Baltimore: University Park Press, 1977.Google Scholar
  40. Davidson, J. M. Gonadal hormones and human behavior. In M. C. Diamond & C. C. Korenbrot (Eds.), Hormonal contraceptives, estrogens and human welfare. New York: Academic, 1978.Google Scholar
  41. Davidson, J. M. Gonadal hormones and human behavior. In H. Katchadourian (Ed.), Sex and its psychosocial derivatives. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  42. Davidson, J. M., & Taupin, S. Neural mediation of steroid-induced sexual behavior in rats. In M. Sandler & G. L. Gessa (Eds.), Sexual behavior: Pharamacology and biochemistry. New York: Raven, 1975.Google Scholar
  43. Davidson, J. M., Camargo, C., Smith, E. R., & Mcneil, M. Effects of androgen on sexual behavior in hypogonadal men. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 1979, 48, 955.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Davidson, J. M., Gray, G. D., & Smith, E. R. Animal models in the endocrinology of reproductive behavior. In N. Alexander (Ed.), Animal models for research on contraception and fertility, New York: Harper & Row, 1978.Google Scholar
  45. Davidson, J. M., Smith, E. R., & Bowers, C. Y. Effects of mating on gonadotropin release in the female rat. Endocrinology, 1973, 93, 1185–1192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Davidson, J. M., Stefanick, M. L., Sachs, B. L., & Smith, E. R. Role of androgen in sexual reflexes of the male rat. Physiology and Behavior, 1978.Google Scholar
  47. Davidson, R. J., & Schwartz, G. E. The psychobiology of relaxation and related states: A multi-process theory. In D. I. Mostofsky (Ed.), Behavior control and modification of physiological activity. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1976, pp. 339–442.Google Scholar
  48. Ekman, P., Friesen, W. V., & Ellsworth, P. Emotion in the human face. New York: Pergamon, 1972.Google Scholar
  49. Elliott, R. Further comments on the Lacey hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1974, 30, 19–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Epstein, A. W. The relationship of altered brain states to sexual psychopathology. In J. Zubin & J. Money (Eds.), Contemporary sexual behavior: Critical issues in the 1970s. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  51. Fisher, C., Schiavi, P., Lear, H., Edwards, A., Davis, D. M., & Witkin, A. P. The assessment of nocturnal REM erection in the diagnosis of sexual impotence. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 1975, 1, 277–289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Fisher, S. The female orgasm. New York: Basic Books, 1973.Google Scholar
  53. Fitzpatrick, R. J. The neurohypophysis and the male reproductive tract. In G. W. Harris & B. T. Donovan (Eds.), The pituitary gland,Vol. 3. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1966. (a)Google Scholar
  54. Fitzpatrick, R. J. The posterior pituitary gland and the female reproductive tract. In G. W. Harris & B. T. Donovan (Eds.), The pituitary gland,Vol. 3. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1966. (b)Google Scholar
  55. Fox, C. A. Some aspects and implications of coital physiology. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 1976, 2, 205–213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Fox, C. A., & Fox, B. A comparative study of coital physiology with special reference to the sexual climax. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 1971, 24, 319–336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Fox, C. A., Ismail, A. A. A., Love, D. M., Kirkham, K. E., & Loraine, J. A. Studies on the relationship between plasma testosterone levels and human sexual activity. Journal of Endocrinology, 1972, 52, 51–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Fox, C. A., & Knaggs, G. S. Milk-ejection activity (oxytocin) in peripheral venous blood in man during lactation and in association with coitus. Journal of Endocrinology, 1969, 45, 145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Funkenstein, D. H. Norepinephrine-like and epinephrine-like substances in relation to human behavior. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1956, 124, 58–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Gahery, Y., & Vigier, D. Inhibitory effects in the cuneate nucleus produced by vago-aortic afferent fibers. Brain Research, 1974, 75, 241–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Garrison, O. V. The yoga of sex. New York: Julian, 1964.Google Scholar
  62. Geer, J. J., & Quartararo, J. D. Vaginal blood volume responses during masturbation. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 1976, 5, 403–413.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Gellhorn, E. Principles of autonomic-somatic integrations. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1967.Google Scholar
  64. Gellhorn, E. The emotions and the ergotropic and trophotropic systems. Psychological Forschrift, 1970, 34, 48–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Goldstein, A. Opioid peptides (endorphins) in pituitary and brain. Science, 1976, 193, 1081.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Goy, R. W., & Resko, J. A. Gonadal hormones and behavior of normal and pseudoher-maphroditic female primates. Recent Progress in Hormone Research, 1972, 28, 707–733.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Greeley, A. M. Ecstasy: A way of knowing. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1974.Google Scholar
  68. Hamilton, W. J., III, amp; Arrowood, P. S. Copulatory vocalizations of Chacma baboons (Papio ursinus), gibbons (Hylobates hoolock), and humans. Science, 1978, 200, 1405–1408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hart, B. L. Alteration of quantitative aspects of sexual reflexes in spinal male dogs by testosterone. Journal of Comparative Physiology and Psychology, 1968, 66, 726–730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hart, B. L. Reflexive behavior. In G. Bermant (Ed.), Perspectives on animal behavior. Glen-view, Ill.: Scott, Foresman, 1973.Google Scholar
  71. Hart, B. L. The medial preoptic-anterior hypothalamic area and sociosexual behavior of male dogs: A comparative neuropsychological analysis. Journal of Comparative Physiology and Psychology, 1974, 68, 328–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hart, B. L., & Haugen, C. M. Activation of sexual reflexes in male rats by spinal implantation of testosterone. Physiology and Behavior, 1968, 3, 735–738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Harter, M. R., & Salmon, L. E. Intra modality selective attention and average evoked responses randomly presented patterns. Elect roencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1972, 32, 605–613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Hartman, W., & Fithian, M. Presented at Western Psychological Association Annual Meeting, San Francisco, 1978.Google Scholar
  75. Heath, R. G. Pleasure and brain activity in man. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1972, 154, 3–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Hilgard, E. R. Altered states of awareness. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorders, 1969, 149, 68–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Hite, S. The Hite Report. New York: Dell, 1976.Google Scholar
  78. Hohmann, G. Some effects of spinal cord lesion on experienced emotional feeling. Psychophysiology, 1966, 3, 143–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Jochle, W. Coitus-induced ovulation. Contraception, 1973, 7, 523–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Kinsey, A. C., Pomeroy, W. B., & Martin, C. E. Sexual behavior in the human male. Philadelphia and London: W. B. Saunders, 1948.Google Scholar
  81. Kinsey, A. C., Pomeroy, W. B., Martin, C. E., & Gebhard, P. H. Sexual behavior in the human female. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1953.Google Scholar
  82. Kline-Graber, G., amp; Graber, B. Women’s orgasm. New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1975.Google Scholar
  83. Kling, A., Borowitz, G., & Cartwright, R. D. Plasma levels of 17-hydroxy-corticosteroids during sexual arousal in man. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 1972, 16, 215–221.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Komisaruk, B. R. Neural and hormonal interactions in the reproductive behavior of female rats. In W. Montagna & W. Sadler (Eds.), Reproductive behavior. New York and London: Plenum, 1974.Google Scholar
  85. Komisaruk, B. R. The nature of the neural substrate of female sexual behavior in mammals and its hormonal sensitivity: Review and speculations. In J. B. Hutchison (Ed.), Biological determinants of sexual behavior. New York: Wiley, 1977.Google Scholar
  86. Kurtz, R. G. Hippocampal and cortical activity during sexual behavior in the female rat. Journal of Comparative Physiological Pshchology, 1975, 89, 158–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Kurtz, R. G., & Adler, N. T. Electrophysiological correlates of copulatory behavior in the male rat: Evidence for a sexual inhibitory process. Journal of Comparative Physiology and Psychology, 1973, 84, 225–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Lacey, J. I., & Lacey, B. C. On heart rate responses and behavior: A reply to Elliott. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1974, 30, 1–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Lancaster, J. B. Sex and gender in evolutionary perspective. In H. Katchadourian (Ed.), Sex and its psychosocial derivates. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  90. Laski, M. Ecstasy. Bloomington: University of Indiana Press, 1961.Google Scholar
  91. Lessing, D. The golden notebook. London: M. Joseph, 1962.Google Scholar
  92. Levi, L. Sympatho-adrenomedullary activity, diuresis and emotional reactions during visual sexual stimulation in human females and males. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1969, 31, 251–268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. London, H., & Nisbett, R. E. Thought and feeling. Chicago: Aldine, 1974.Google Scholar
  94. Lowen, A. Love and orgasm. New York: Macmillan, 1965.Google Scholar
  95. Lowry, T. P., & Lowry, T. S. The clitoris. St. Louis: W. H. Green, 1976.Google Scholar
  96. Luria, Z. Psychosocial determinants of gender identity, role of orientation. In H. Katchadourian (Ed.), Sex and its psychosocial derivatives. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  97. Masters, W. H. The sexual response cycle of the human female. Western Journal of Surgery, Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1960, 68, 57–72.Google Scholar
  98. Masters, W. H., & Johnson, V. E. Human sexual response. Boston: Little, Brown, 1966.Google Scholar
  99. Maurus, M., Mitra, J., & Ploog, D. Cerebral representation of the clitoris in ovariectomized squirrel monkeys. Experimental Neurology, 1965, 13, 283–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Mcewen, B. S., Denef, C. J., Gerlach, J. L., & Paplinger, L. Chemical studies of the brain as a steroid hormone target tissue. In G. Adleman (Ed.), The neurosciences. Cambridge and London: MIT Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  101. Mclean, P. D., & Ploog, D. W. Cerebral representation of penile erection. Journal of Neurophysiology, 1962, 25, 29–55.Google Scholar
  102. Melzack, R. The puzzle of pain. New York: Basic Books, 1973.Google Scholar
  103. Melzack, R., & WALL, P. D. Pain mechanisms: A new theory. Science, 1965, /50, 971–979.Google Scholar
  104. Modianos, D. T., Flexman, J. E., & Hitt, J. C. Rostral medial forebrain bundle lesions produce decrements in masculine, but not feminine sexual behavior in spayed female rats. Behavioral Biology, 1973, 8, 629–636.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Money, J. Phantom orgasm in the dreams of paraplegic men and women. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1960, 3, 373–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Money, J. Sex hormones and other variables in human eroticism. In W. C. Young, (Ed.), Sex and internal secretions, Vol. 2 (3rd ed.). New York: Williams & Wilkins, 1961.Google Scholar
  107. Money, J., & Ehrhardt, A. A. Man and woman, boy and girl. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1972.Google Scholar
  108. Naftolin, F., Ryan, K. J., & Petro, Z. Aromatization of androstenedione by the anterior hypothalamus of adult male and female rats. Endocrinology, 1972, 90, 295–298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Nance, D. M., Shryne, J., & Gorski, R. A. Septal lesions: Effects on lordosis behavior and pattern of gonadotropin release. Hormones and Behavior, 1974, 5, 73–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Newton, N. Interrelationships between sexual responsiveness, birth and breast feeding. In J. Zubin & J. Money (Eds.), Contemporary sexual behavior: Critical issues in the 1970s. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  111. Orbach, J. Spontaneous ejaculation in rat. Science, 1961, 134, 1072.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Petersen, J. R. The extended male orgasm. Playboy, April 1977.Google Scholar
  113. Pfaff, D. W., Diakow, C., Zigmond, R. E., & Kow, L. M. Neural and hormonal determinants of female mating behavior in rats. In G. Adelman (Ed.), The neurosciences. Cambridge and London: The M.I.T. Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  114. Pomeroy, W. B. The Masters-Johnson report and the Kinsey tradition. In R. Brecher & E. Brecher (Eds.), An analysis of human sexual response. London: Deutsch, 1967, pp.. 111–123.Google Scholar
  115. Porges, S. W. Peripheral and neurochemical parallels of psychopathology: A psychophysiological model relating autonomic imbalance to hyperactivity, psychopathy and autism. In H. W. Reese (Ed.), Advances in child development, Vol. 2. New York: Academic Press, 1976, pp. 35–65.Google Scholar
  116. Pribram, K. H. Self-consciousness and intentionality: A model based on an experimental analysis of the brain mechanisms involved in the Jamesian Theory of motivation and emotion. In G. E. Schwartz & O. Shapiro (Eds.), Consciousness and self-regulation. New York: Plenum, 1976.Google Scholar
  117. Read, G. D. Observations on a series of labors with special reference to physiological delivery. Lancet, 1949, 1, 721–726.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Robbins, M. B., & Jensen, G. D. Multiple orgasm in males. In R. Gemme & C. C. Wheeler (Eds.), Progress in sexology. New York: Plenum, 1976, pp. 323–328.Google Scholar
  119. Roeder, F. D. Stereotaxic lesion of the tuber cinereum in sexual deviation. Confinia Neurologica, 1966, 27, 162–163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Sachs, B. D., & Barfield, R. J. Copulatory behavior of male rats given intermittent electric shocks: Theoretical implications. Journal of Comparative Physiology and Psychology, 1974, 86, 607–615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Sachs, B. D., & Barfield, R. J. Functional analysis of male copulatory behavior in the rat. In J. S. Rosenblatt, R. Hinde, E. Shaw, & C. G. Beer (Eds.), Advances in the study of behavior. New York: Academic, 1976.Google Scholar
  122. Schachter, S. Cognition and peripheralist-centralist controversies in motivation and emotion. In M. S. Gazzaniga (Ed.), Handbook of psychophysiology. New York: Academic Press, 1975, pp. 529–564.Google Scholar
  123. Schachter, S., & Singer, J. E. Cognitive, social and physiological determinants of emotional state. Psychological Reviews, 1962, 69, 379–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Scharfstein, B. S. Mystical experience. New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1973.Google Scholar
  125. Schmidt, G., & SIcuscH, V. Women’s sexual arousal. In J. Zubin & J. Money (Eds.), Contemporary sexual behavior: Critical issues in the 1970s. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973, pp. 117–144.Google Scholar
  126. Schwartz, G. E. Biofeedback, self-regulation and the patterning of physiological processes. American Scientist, 1975, 63, 314–324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Semans, J. H., & Langworthy, O. R. Observations on the neurophysiology of sexual function in the male cat. Journal of Urology, 1938, 40, 836–846.Google Scholar
  128. Sevely, J. L., & Bennet, J. W. Concerning female ejaculation and the female prostate. Journal of Sex Research 1978, 14(1) 1–20.Google Scholar
  129. Shader, R. I. Ejaculation disorders. In R. I. Shader (Ed.), Psychiatric complications of medical drugs. New York: Raven, 1972.Google Scholar
  130. Sherfey, M. J. The nature and evolution of female sexuality. New York: Random House, 1972.Google Scholar
  131. Sherrington, C. Experiments on the value of vascular and visceral functions for the genesis of emotion. Proceedings of the Royal Society, 1900, 66, 309–403.Google Scholar
  132. Shirai, M., Matsuda, S., Mitsukawa, S., Nakamura, M., & Yonezawa, K. Effects of ejaculation induced by manual stimulation on plasma gonadotropin and testosterone levels in infertile man. Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine, 1974, 114, 91–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Singer, I. Goals of human sexuality. New York: Shocken Books, 1973.Google Scholar
  134. Singer, J. J. Control of male and female sexual behavior in the female rat. Journal of Comparative Physiology and Psychology, 1968, 66, 738–742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Slimp, J. C., Hart, B. C., & Goy, R. W. Heterosexual, autosexual and social behavior of adult male Rhesus monkeys with medial preoptic-anterior hypothalamic lesions. Brain Research, 1978, 142, 105–122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Smith, E. R., Damassa, D. A., & Davidson, J. M. Plasma testosterone and sexual behavior following intracerebral implantation of testosterone propionate in the castrated male rat. Hormones and Behavior, 1977, 8, 77–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Sobrero, A. J. Technic for the induction of ejaculation in humans. Fertility and Sterility, 1965, 16, 765–767.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Sodersten, P., Damassa, D. A., & Smith, E. R. Sexual behavior in developing male rats. Hormones and Behavior, 1977, 8, 320–341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Stace, W. T. Mysticism and philosophy. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1960.Google Scholar
  140. Stearns, E. L., Winter, J. S. D., & Faiman, C. Effects of coitus on gonadotropin, prolactin and sex steroid levels in man. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 1973, 37, 687–691.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Stilwell, D. Anatomy of the human clitoris. In T. P. Lowry & T. S. Lowry (Eds.), The clitoris. St. Louis: W. H. Green, 1976.Google Scholar
  142. Stockham, A. B. Karezza, ethics of marriage. Chicago: Alice B. Stockham, 1896.Google Scholar
  143. Sturup, G. K. Castration: The total treatment. In H. L. P. Resnik & M. E. Wolfgang (Eds.), Sexual behaviors: Social, clinical and legal aspects. Boston: Little, Brown, 1972, pp. 361–382.Google Scholar
  144. Takagi, H., Takayuki, D., & Kawasaki, K. Effects of morphine, L-dopa and tetrabenazine on the lamina V cells of spinal dorsal horn. Life Sciences, 1975, 17, 67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Tarabulcy, E. Sexual function in the normal and in paraplegia. Paraplegia, 1972, 10, 201–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Tart, C. T. On being stoned. A psychological study of marijuana intoxication. Palo Alto, Calif.: Science and Behavior Books, 1971.Google Scholar
  147. Tart, C. T. States Of consciousness. New York: Dutton, 1975.Google Scholar
  148. Terzian, H., & Dalle-ORE, G. Syndrome on Klüver and Bucy reproduced in man by bilateral removal of the temporal lobes. Neurology, 1955, 5, 373–380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Tyrer, P. The role of bodily feelings in anxiety. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  150. Valenstein, E. Brain control. New York: Wiley, 1973.Google Scholar
  151. Vance, E. B., & Wagner, N. N. Written descriptions of orgasms: A study of sex differences. Archives of Sexual Behaivor, 1976, 5, 87–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Wenger, M. A., Averill, J. R., & Smith, D. D. B. Autonomic activity during sexual arousal. Psychophysiology, 1968, 4, 468–478.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Whalen, R. E. Sexual motivation. Psychological Reviews, 1966, 73, 151–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Young, W. C. The hormones and mating behavior. In W. C. Young (Ed.), Sex and internal secretions, Vol. 2. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1961.Google Scholar
  155. Zarrow, M. X., & Clark, J. H. Ovulation following vaginal stimulation in a spontaneous ovulator and its implications. Journal of Endocrinology, 1968, 40, 343–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Zuckerman, M. Physiological measures of sexual arousal in the human. Psychological Bulletin, 1971, 75, 297–329.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julian M. Davidson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysiologyStanford UniversityStanfordUSA

Personalised recommendations