Glucagon and Somatostatin

  • Richard E. Dobbs
  • Roger H. Unger


The islets of Langerhans contain at least four major cell types—the A, A2, or α cell; the B or β cell; the D or A1 cell; and the F cell—containing, respectively, glucagon, insulin, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide. In every species thus far examined, these four cell types bear a constant topographical relationship to one another, although the particular cellular arrangements may differ from species to species. In man and in the rat, the A cells are situated in the outer rim of the islet and make up approximately 25% of the total islet cell population (Fujita et al, 1976; Orci et aL, 1976b). The D cells are situated immediately under this outer A-cell rim and make up approximately 10% of the endocrine cells of the endocrine pancreas. The B cells form the central mass of the islets, accounting for at least 65% in the rat. F cells replace A cells in islets situated close to the duodenum (Orci, 1976a); these islets are particularly rich in polypeptide-containing cells and poor in glucagon-containing cells.


Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide Glucagon Secretion Hepatic Glucose Production Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide Glucagon Level 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations used in this chapter


big plasma glucagon


cyclic AMP


free fatty acid(s)


growth hormone


gastric inhibitory polypeptide


gluca gonlike immunoreactivity


immunoreactive glucagon


vasoactive intestinal polypeptide


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard E. Dobbs
    • 1
    • 2
  • Roger H. Unger
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Veterans Administration HospitalDallasUSA
  2. 2.Department of PhysiologyUniversity of Texas Southwestern Medical SchoolDallasUSA
  3. 3.Department of Internal MedicineUniversity of Texas Southwestern Medical SchoolDallasUSA

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