Prenatal Diagnosis of Neural Tube Defects

  • Aubrey Milunsky


Neural tube defects (NTDs) are the commonest major congenital malformations in the north and west of the United Kingdom, involving particularly Northern Ireland, Wales, and Scotland. The estimated incidence in these areas varies from 6 to 8 per 1000 births (Elwood, 1970; Carter et al., 1968; Fedrick, 1976). Similar areas with a high incidence include the Punjab in India and Alexandria in Egypt (Verma, 1978; Stevenson et al., 1966). In the United States and Europe, NTDs are also among the most common major congenital anomalies. In the United States published estimates of the approximate incidence rates for NTDs vary between 1.4 and 3.1 per 1000 (Nakano, 1973). Approximately 6000 infants with NTDs are born each year in the United States.


Amniotic Fluid Prenatal Diagnosis Spina Bifida Neural Tube Defect Maternal Serum 
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Copyright information

© Aubrey Milunsky 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aubrey Milunsky
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  2. 2.Genetics DivisionEunice Kennedy Shriver CenterWalthamUSA
  3. 3.Children’s ServiceMassachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA

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