Advertisement

Abstract

The chemical constituents of amniotic fluid have in the past few years yielded valuable information for prenatal diagnosis. While acting as a physical protective “cushion” for the fetus, these amniotic fluid constituents have allowed increasingly accurate assessments of fetal health. Since the amniotic fluid can be viewed as an extension of the fetal extracellular space (Lind et al., 1969; Lind and Hytten, 1970), an understanding of its origin, formation, and chemical constitution will be crucial to continued progress with prenatal diagnosis. Cellular components are discussed in this chapter and in Chapter 4.

Keywords

Amniotic Fluid Prenatal Diagnosis Maternal Serum Pompe Disease Amniotic Fluid Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abbas, T. M., and Tovey, J. E., 1960, Proteins in liquor amnii, Br. Med. J. 1:476.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abramovich, D. R., 1968, The volume of amniotic fluid in early pregnancy, J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 75:728.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Anteby, S. C., Zukerman, H., Gedelia, I., et al., 1973, Citric acid in amniotic fluid, J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 80:27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Antonowicz, I., Chang, S. K., and Grank, R. J., 1974, Development and distribution of lysosomal enzymes and disaccharidases in human fetal intestine, Gastroenterology 67:51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Antonowicz, I., Ishida, S., and Shwachman, H., 1975, Studies in meconium: Disaccharidase activities in meconium from cystic fibrosis patients and controls. Pediatrics 56:782.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Antonowicz, I., Milunsky, A., Lebenthal, E., et al., 1977, Disaccharidase and lysosomal enzyme activities in amniotic fluid, intestinal mucosa and meconium, Biol. Neonate 32:280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Arcilla, M. B., and Sturgeon, P., 1972, Lewis and ABH substances in amniotic fluid obtained by amniocentesis, Pediatr. Res. 6:853.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Arey, L. B., 1965, Developmental Anatomy: A Textbook and Laboratory Manual of Embryology, 7th ed., Saunders, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  9. Arvidson, G., Ekelund, H., and Ästedt, B., 1972, Phospholipid composition of human amniotic fluid during gestation and at term. Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. 51:71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bala, R. M., Wright, C., Bardai, A., et al., 1978, Somatomedin bioactivity in serum and amniotic fluid during pregnancy, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 46:649.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Barbanti, A., 1956, II quadro proteico de liquido amniotico valutato elettroforeticamenti e suoi rapporti col siero materno e quello fetale, Minerva Ginecol. 8:708.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bayer, H., Bonnar, J., and Phizackerley, P. J. R., 1973, Amniotic fluid phospholipids in normal and abnormal pregnancy, J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 80:333.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Behsle, S., Fend, M. deM., and Tulchinsky, E., 1977, Amniotic fluid testosterone and folliclestimulating hormone in the determination of fetal sex. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 128:514.Google Scholar
  14. Benirschke, K., and McKay, D. C., 1953, The antidiuretic hormone in fetus and infant, Obstet. Gynecol. 1:638.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Benzie, R. J., Doran, T. A., Harkins, et al., 1974, Composition of the amniotic fluid and maternal serum in pregnancy. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 119:798.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bergman, N., Bercovici, B., and Sacks, T., 1972, Antibacterial activity of human amniotic fluid. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 114:520.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bernier, G. M., and Fanger, M. W., 1972, Synthesis of jSg-microglobulin by stimulated lymphocytes, J. Immunol. 109:407.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Biezenski, J. J., 1973, Amniotic fluid phospholipids in early gestation. Obstet Gynecol. 41:825.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Biezenski, J. J., 1976, Incorporation of 14I-palmitate into rabbits’ fetal lipids in vivo, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 126:356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Biezenski, J. J., Pomerance, W., and Goodman, J., 1968, Studies on the origin of amniotic fluid lipids. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 102:853.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Blumenfeld, T. A., Driscoll, J. M., and James, L. S., 1974, Lecithin/sphingomyeline ratios in tracheal and pharyngeal aspirates in respiratory distress syndrome, J. Pediatr. 85:403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Borer, R. C., Jr., Gluck, L., Freeman, R. K., et al., 1971, Prenatal prediction of the respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) (abstr.), Pediatr. Res. 5:655.Google Scholar
  23. Bourne, G. L., 1962, The Human Amnion and Chorion, Lloyd-Luke-Limited, London.Google Scholar
  24. Bourne, G. L., 1966, The anatomy of the human amnion and chorion, Proc. R. Soc. Med. 59:1127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Bourne, G. L., and Lacy, D., 1960, Ultra-structure of human amnion and its possible relation to the circulation of amniotic fluid, Nature (London) 186:952.Google Scholar
  26. Brzezinski, A., Sadovsky, E., and Shafrir, E., 1961, Electrophoretic distribution of proteins in amniotic fluid and in maternal and fetal serum. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 82:800.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Brzezinski, A., Sadovsky, E., and Shafrir, E., 1964, Protein composition of early amniotic fluid and fetal serum with a case of bis-albuminaemia. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 89:488.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Butterworth, J., Sutherland, G. R., Bain, A. D., et al., 1972, Lysosomal enzymes in amniotic fluid, Clin. Chim. Acta 39:275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Butterworth, J., Broadhead, D. M., Sutherland, G. R., et al., 1974, Lysosomal enzymes of amniotic fluid in relation to gestational age. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 119:821.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Cantarow, A., Stuckert, H., and Davies, R. C., 1933, Chemical composition of amniotic fluid; comparative study of human amniotic fluid and maternal blood,Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 57:63.Google Scholar
  31. Caspi, E., Schreyer, L, Schreyer, P., et al., 1975a, Amniotic fluid volume, total phospholipids concentration and L/S ratio in term pregnancies. Obstet. Gynecol. 46:584.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Caspi, E., Schreyer, P., and Tamir, L, 1975b, The amniotic fluid foam test, L/S ratio, and total phospholipids in the evaluation of fetal lung maturity. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 122:323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Caspi, E., Schreyer, P., Weinraub, Z., et al., 1975c, Changes in amniotic fluid lecithin-sphingomyelin ratio following maternal dexamethasone administration. Am. J. Obstet Gynecol. 122:327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Cassady, G., Hinkley, C., Bailey, P., et al., 1975, Amniotic fluid creatinine in pregnancies complicated by diabetes. Am.J. Obstet. Gynecol. 122:13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Castelazo-Ayala, L., and Karchmer, K. S., 1968, Electrophoresis of proteins in normal and pathological pregnancies; correlation with maternal and fetal flood, J. Int. Fed. Gynaecol. Obstet. 6:67.Google Scholar
  36. Cederqvist, L. L., Queenan, J. T., Gadow, E. C., et al., 1972, The origin of gamma G globulins in human amniotic fluid. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 113:838.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Cederqvist, L. L., Zervoudakis, L A., Ewool, L., et al., 1977, Prenatal diagnosis of congenital rubella, Br. Med. J. 297:615.Google Scholar
  38. Cederqvist, L. L., Ewool, L., Bonsnes, R. W., et al., 1978, Detectability and pattern of immunoglobulins in normal amniotic fluid throughout gestation. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 130:220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Charles, D., Jacoby, H. E., and Burgess, F., 1965, Amniotic fluid volumes in the second half of pregnancy. Am.J. Obstet. Gynecol. 93:1042.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Chen, A. B., Mosesson, M. W., and Solish, G. L, 1976, Identification of the cold-insoluble globulin of plasma in amniotic fluid. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 125:958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Cherry, S. H., Filler, M., and Harvey, H., 1973, Lysozyme content of amniotic fluid. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 116:639.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Chochinov, R. H., Mariz, L K., Hajek, A. S., et al., 1977, Characterization of a protein in midterm human amniotic fluid which reacts in the somatomedin-C radioreceptor assay, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 44:902.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Clements, J. A., Reyes, F. L, Winter, J. S. D., et al., 1976, Studies on human sexual development, in. Fetal pituitary and serum, and amniotic fluid concentrations of LH, CG, and FSH, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 42:9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Cockburn, F., Giles, M., Robins, S. P., et al., 1973, Free amino acid composition of human amniotic fluid at term, J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 80:10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Condorelli, S., Cosmi, E. V., and Scarpelli, E. M., 1974, Extrapulmonary source of amniotic fluid phospholipids. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 118:842.Google Scholar
  46. Cowett, R. M., Unsworth, E. J., Hakanson, D. O., et al., 1975, Foam-stability test on gastric aspirate and the diagnosis of respiratory-distress syndrome, N. Engl. J. Med. 293:413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Cox, L. W., and Chalmers, T. A., 1953, The transfer of sodium to the amniotic fluid in normal and abnormal cases, determined by Na24 tracer methods, 7. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 60:222.Google Scholar
  48. Curl, C. W., 1971, Immunoglobulin levels in amniotic fluid. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 109:408.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Dallaire, L., and Perreault, G., 1974, Hereditary multiple intestinal atresia. Birth Defects Orig. Art. Ser. 10(4):259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Dancis, J., Lind, J., and Vara, P., 1960, Transfer of proteins across the human placenta, in: The Placenta and Fetal Membranes (C. A. Villee, ed.), pp. 185–187, Williams and Wilkins, New York.Google Scholar
  51. Dancis, J., Lind, J., Oratz, M., et al., 1961, Placental transfer of proteins in human gestation. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 82:167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Das, S. K., Foster, H. W., Adhikary, P. K., et al., 1975, Gestational variation of fatty acid composition of human amniotic fluid lipids, Obstet. Gynecol. 45:425.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Davis, L. E., Tweed, G. V., Chin, T. D. Y., et al., 1971, Intrauterine diagnosis of cytomegalovirus infection: Viral recovery from amniocentesis fluid. Am.J. Obstet. Gynecol. 109:1217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Dawood, M. Y., 1977, Hormones in amniotic fluid, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 128:576.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. De Castro, A. F., Usategui-Gomez, M., and Spellacy, W. N., 1973, Amniotic fluid amylase, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 116:931.Google Scholar
  56. Delecour, M., Monnier, J. C., and Codaccioni, X., 1970, Connaissances actuelles sur la physiologic et al biochimie du liquide amniotique, Gynecol. Obstet. 69:511.Google Scholar
  57. Derrington, M. M., and Soothill, J. F., 1961, An immunochemical study of the proteins of amniotic fluid and maternal and fetal serum, J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 68:755.Google Scholar
  58. Dewhurst, C. J., Harvey, D. R., Dunham, A. M., et al., 1973, Prediction of respiratory-distress syndrome by estimation of surfactant in the amniotic fluid. Lancet 1:1475.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Donald, I. R., Freeman, R. K., Goebelsmann, U., et al., 1973, Clinical experience with the amniotic fluid lecithin/sphingomyeline ratio. I. Antenatal prediction of pulmonary maturity. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 115:547.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Doran, T. A., Bjerre, S., and Porter, C. J., 1970, Creatinine, uric acid and electrolytes in amniotic fluid. Am.J. Obstet. Gynecol. 106:325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Doran, T. A., Benzie, R. J., Harkins, J. L., et al., 1974, Amniotic fluid tests for fetal maturity. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 119:829.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Doran, T. A., Malone, R. M., Benzie, R. J., et al., 1976, Amniotic fluid tests for fetal maturity in normal and abnormal pregnancies. Am.J. Obstet. Gynecol. 125:586.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Droegemueller, W., Jackson, C., Makowski, E. L., et al., 1969, Amniotic fluid examination as an aid in the assessment of gestational age. Am.J. Obstet. Gynecol. 104:424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Duhring, J. L., and Thompson, S. A., 1975, Amniotic fluid phospholipid analysis in normal and complicated pregnancies, Am.J. Obstet. Gynecol. 121:218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Elliott, P. M., and Inman, W. H. W., 1961, Volume of liquor amnii in normal and abnormal pregnancy, Lancet 2:835.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Emery, A. E. H., Burt, D., Nelson, M. M., et al., 1970, Antenatal diagnosis and aminoacid composition of amniotic fluid, Lancet 1:1307.Google Scholar
  67. Emery, A. E. H., Eccleston, D., Scrimgeour, J. B., et al., 1972, Amniotic fluid composition in malformations of the central nervous system, J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 79:154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Emery, A. E. H., Burt, D., and Scrimgeour, J. B., 1973, Aminoacid composition of amniotic fluid in central-nervous-system malformations. Lancet 1:970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Emery, A. E. H., Brock, D. J. H., Burt, D., et al., 1974, Amniotic fluid composition in malformations of the fetal central nervous system, J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Brit. Commonw. 81:512.Google Scholar
  70. Enlander, D., 1972, Amniotic fluid indicators of fetal maturity. Obstet. Gynecol. 40:605.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Evans, H. E., Glass, L., and Mandl, I., 1975, α1-Antitrypsin concentration in amniotic fluid, Biol. Neonate 27:232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Fend, M. D., and Tulchinsky, D., 1975, Total Cortisol in amniotic fluid and fetal lung maturation, N. Engl. J. Med. 292:133.Google Scholar
  73. Fend, M., Alonso, C., and Alba, M., 1972, Estriol values in amniotic fluid in the course of normal pregnancy. Am.J. Obstet. Gynecol. 113:367.Google Scholar
  74. Fex, G., Holmberg, N.-G., and Löfstrand, T., 1975, Phospholipids and creatinine in amniotic fluid in relation to gestational age. I. Normal pregnancy. Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. 54:425.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Fischbacher, P. H., and Quinlivan, W. L. C., 1970, Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the proteins in human amniotic fluid. Am.J. Obstet. Gynecol. 108:1050.Google Scholar
  76. Florman, A., and Teubner, D., 1969, Enhancement of bacterial growth in amniotic fluid by meconium, y. Pediatr. 74:111.Google Scholar
  77. Flossner, O., and Kirstein, F., 1926, Biochemische Untersuchungen über das menschilche Fruchtwasser, Z. Biol. (Munich) 84:510.Google Scholar
  78. Fluharty, A. L., Scott, M. L., Porter, M. T., et al., 1973, Acid alpha-glucosidase in amniotic fluid, Biochem. Med. 7:39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Frantz, T., Lindback, T., Skjaeraasen, J., et al., 1975, Phospholipids in amniotic fluid. II. Lecithin fatty acid patterns related to gestation, maternal disease and fetal outcome. Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. 54:33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Freda, J. V., 1958, A-B-0 (H) blood group substances in the human maternal-fetal barrier and amniotic fluid. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 76:407.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Freeman, R. K., Bateman, B. G., Goebelsmann, U., et al., 1974, Clinical experience with the amniotic fluid lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio. IL The L/S ratio in “stressed pregnancies,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 119:239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Friedland, J., Perle, G., Saifer, A., et al., 1971, Screening for Tay-Sachs disease in utero using amniotic fluid, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 136:1297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Frosolono, M. F., Roux, J. F., 1978, Surface-active material in human amniotic fluid. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 130:562.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Fuchs, F., 1966, Volume of amniotic fluid at various stages of pregnancy, Clin. Obstet. Gynecol. 9:449.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Fujikura, T., and Klionsky, B., 1975, The significance of meconium staining. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 121:45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Gadow, E. C., Floriani, F. A., and Florin, A., 1974, IgG levels in amniotic fluid. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 119:849.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Galask, R. P., and Snyder, I. R., 1968, Bacterial inhibition by amniotic fluid, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 102:949.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Galask, R. P., and Snyder, I. R., 1970, Antimicrobial factors in amniotic fluid. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 106:59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Gautray, J. P., Jolivet, A., Vielh, J. P., et al., 1977, Presence of immunoassayable)8-endorphin in human amniotic fluid: Elevation in cases of fetal distress. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 129:211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Geyer, H., 1970, Zie Herkunft der Fruchtwasser-enzyme, Z. Klin. Chem. Klin. Biochem. 8:145.Google Scholar
  91. Geyer, H., and Schneider, L, 1970, Enzyme im Fruchtwasser, Z. Klin. Chem. Klin. Biochem. 8:141.Google Scholar
  92. Gibbons, J. M., Huntley, T. E., and Corral, A. G., 1974, Effect of maternal blood contamination on amniotic fluid analysis. Obstet. Gynecol. 44:657.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Giblett, E. R., 1969, Genetic Markers in Human Blood. Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  94. Giles, H. R., Lox, C. D., Heine, W., et al., 1974, Intrauterine fetal sex determination by radioimmunoassay of amniotic fluid testosterone, Gynecol. Invest. 5:317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Gillibrand, P. N., 1969, Changes in amniotic fluid volume with advancing pregnancy, J. Obstet Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 76:527.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Gitlin, D., Kumante, J., Urrusti, J., et al., 1964, The selectivity of the human placenta in the transfer of plasma proteins from mother to fetus, J. Clin. Invest. 43:1938.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Gluck, L., 1972, Surfactant: 1972, Pediatr. Clin. N. Am. 19:325.Google Scholar
  98. Gluck, L., and Kulovich, M. V., 1973, Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratios in amniotic fluid in normal and abnormal pregnancy. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 115:539.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Gluck, L., Landowne, R. A., and Kulovich, M. V., 1970, Biochemical development of surface activity in mammalian lung. 3. Structural changes in lung lecithin during development of the rabbit fetus and newborn, Pediatr. Res. 4:352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Gluck, L., Kulovich, M. V., Borer, R. C., et al., 1971, Diagnosis of the respiratory distress syndrome by amniocentesis. Am.J. Obstet. Gynecol. 109:440.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Gray, M. J., Neslen, E. D., and Plentl, A. A., 1956, Estimation of water transfer from amniotic fluid to fetus, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 92:463.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Green, G. H., 1955, Foetal renal hypoplasia and the origin of amniotic fluid, J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 62:592.Google Scholar
  103. Gusdon, J., 1962, A bactericidin for Bacillus subtilis in pregnancy, J. Immunol. 88:494.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Hagenfeldt, L., and Hagenfeldt, K., 1976, Individual free fatty acids in amniotic fluid and in plasma of pregnant women, Br. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 83:383.Google Scholar
  105. Hall, P. W., III, and Roux, J. F., 1974, Amniotic fluid beta-2 microglobulin concentration—An index of gestational age. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 120;56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Hamilton, W. J., Boyd, J. D., and Mossman, H. W., 1964, Human Embryology, W. Heffer & Sons, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  107. Harper, P., Bias, W. B., Hutchinson, J. R., et al., 1971, ABH secretor status of the fetus: A genetic marker identifiable by amniocentesis, J. Med. Genet. 8:438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Harwick, H. J., Luppa, J. B., and Fekety, F. R., 1969, Microorganisms and amniotic fluid. Obstet. Gynecol. 33:256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Helmy, F. M., and Hack, M. H., 1962, Comparison of the lipids in maternal and cord blood and of human amniotic fluid, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 110:91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Henneman, C. E., Anderson, G. V., Tejavej, A., et al., 1970, Fetal maturation and amniotic fluid. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 108:302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Heron, H. J., 1966, The electrophoresis of proteins of amniotic fluid, J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 73:91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Hibbard, B. M., 1972, Polyhydramnios and oligohydramnios, Clin. Obstet. Gynecol. 5:1044.Google Scholar
  113. Hodari, A. A., Mariona, F. G., Houlihan, R. T., et al., 1973, Creatinine transport in the maternalfetal complex. Obstet. Gynecol. 41:47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Hüfner, M., Grussendorf, M., Lorenz, U., et al., 1977, 3,3’,5’-Triiodothyronine (Reverse Tg) in amniotic fluid and cord serum, Eur. J. Pediatr. 125:213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Hutchinson, D. L., Hunter, C. B., Neslen, E. D., et al., 1955, Exchange of water and electrolytes in the mechanism of amniotic fluid formation and the relationship of hydramnios, Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 100:391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Hutchinson, D. L., Gray, M. J., Plentl, A. A., et al., 1959, The role of the fetus in the water exchange of the amniotic fluid of normal and hydramniotic patients, J. Clin. Invest. 38:971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Ip, M. P. C., Draisey, T. F., Thibert, R. J., et al., 1977, Fetal lung maturity, as assessed by gasliquid chromatographic determination of phospholipid palmitic acid in amniotic fluid, Clin. Chem. 23:35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Izaka, K., Shirakawa, H., Yamada, M., et al., 1971, Method for isolation of human placental lysozyme, Anal. Biochem. 42:299.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Jackson, R. W., Anderson, G. D., and Held, B., 1975, Amniotic fluid phospholipids and fetal lung maturity. I. Assessment of various methods of determining lecithin and sphingomyelin, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 121:1095.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Jeffcoate, T. N. A., and Scott, J. S., 1959, Polyhydramnios and oligohydramnios. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 80:77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Johnell, H. E., and Nilsson, B. A., 1971, Oxygen tension, acid-base status and electrolytes in human amniotic fluid, Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. 50:183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Johnson, A. M., Umansky, I., Alper, A. A., et al., 1974, Amniotic fluid proteins: Maternal and fetal contributions, J. Pediatr. 84:588.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Jonasson, L.-E., Ervin, P.-E., and Wibell, L., 1974, Content of β2-microglobulin and albumin in amniotic fluid. Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. 53:63.Google Scholar
  124. Judd, H. L., Robinson, J. D., Young, P. E., et al., 1976, Amniotic fluid testosterone levels in midpregnancy. Obstet. Gynecol. 48:690.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Kaufman, S., 1966, Protein-bound iodine (PBI) in human amniotic fluid, J. Pediatr. 68:990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Kerenyi, T., and Sarkozi, L., 1974, Diagnosis of fetal death in utero by elevated amniotic fluid CPK levels. Obstet. Gynecol. 44:215.Google Scholar
  127. Kitzmiller, J. L., Highby, S., and Lucas, W. E., 1973, Retarded growth of coli in amniotic fluid. Obstet. Gynecol. 41:38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Kleist, S. V., Buff, D., and Burtin, P., 1968, Relation entre les antigens du liquide amniotique et de serum foetal, Clin. Chim. Acta 20:89.Google Scholar
  129. Klopper, A., 1970, Oestriol in amniotic fluid, Proc. R. Soc. Med. 63:1090.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Lacourt, G. C., Arendt, J., Cox, J., et al., 1977, Microcephalic dwarfism with associated low amniotic fluid 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5 HI A A): Report of a case of Cornelia de Lange syndrome, Helv. Paediatr. Acta 32:149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Lambotte, R., 1966, Isolement et proprietes d’un alpharglobulin specifique du liquide amniotique humain. Arch. Int. Physiol. Biochim. 74:284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Lambotte, R., and Gosselin-Ray, C., 1967, Analyse electrophoretique de la teneur en polysaccharides de I’ai-globuline specifique du liquide amniotique humain, Arch. Int. Physiol. Biochim. 75:109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Lambotte, R., and Salmon, J., 1962, Etude immunoelectrophoretique du liquide amniotique humain, C. R. Soc. Biol. 156:530.Google Scholar
  134. Lambotte, R., and Uhlenbruck, G., 1966, Amniomucoids—A new class of hexosamine-rich glycoproteins, Nature (London) 212:290.Google Scholar
  135. Landing, B. H., 1950, Amnio nodosum; a lesion of the placenta apparently associated with deficient secretion of fetal urine, Am._ J. Obstet. Gynecol. 60:1339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Lansac, J., Page, Y., and Thoulon, J. M., 1973, Les lipides du liquide amniotique, Lyon Med. 229:131.Google Scholar
  137. Lapan, B., and Friedman, M. M., 1962, Enzymes in the amniotic fluid and maternal serum, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 83:1337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Lappin, T. R. J., 1971, The measurement of non-esterified fatty acids in icteric body fluids, Clin. Chim. Acta 33:153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Larsen, B., Galask, R. P., and Snyder, LS., 1974a, Muramidase and peroxidase activity of human amniotic fluid. Obstet. Gynecol. 44:219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Larsen, B., Snyder, L S., and Galask, R. P., 1974b, Bacterial growth inhibition by amniotic fluid. L In vitro evidence for bacterial growth-inhibiting activity, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 119:492.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Lewis, J. F., Johnson, P., and Miller, P., 1976, Evaluation of amniotic fluid for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Am.J. Clin. Pathol. 65:58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Lind, T., and Hytten, F. E., 1970, Relation of amniotic fluid volume to fetal weight in the first half of pregnancy. Lancet 1:1147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Lind, T., Parkin, F. M., and Cheyne, G. A., 1969, Biochemical and cytological changes in liquor amnii with advancing gestation, J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 76:673.Google Scholar
  144. Lind, T., Kendall, A., and Hytten, F. E., 1972, The role of the fetus in the formation of amniotic fluid, J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 79:289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Lindback, T., and Frantz, T., 1975, Effect of centrifugation on amniotic fluid phospholipid recovery, Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. 54:101.Google Scholar
  146. Löfstrand, T., Fex, G., and Holmberg, N.-G., 1976, Phospholipids and creatinine in amniotic fluid in relation to gestational age. Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. 55:145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Lowden, J. A., Cutz, E., Conen, P. E., et al., 1973, Prenatal diagnosis of GM1-gangliosidosis, N. Engl. J. Med. 288:225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Mallikarjuneswara, V. R., 1975, Lecithin-sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid, as assessed by a modified thin-layer chromatographic method in which a commercial pre-coated plate is used, Clin. Chem. 21:260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Matthews, C. D., and Martin, M. R., 1974, Early detection of meconium-stained liquor during labor: A contribution to fetal care. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 36:808.Google Scholar
  150. Mattison, D. R., 1970, Amniotic fluid osmolality. Obstet. Gynecol. 36:420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. McAllister, C. J., Stull, C. G., and Courey, N. G., 1973, Amniotic fluid levels of uric acid and creatinine in toxemic patients—Possible relation to diuretic use. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 115:560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. McKay, D. G., Richardson, M. V., and Hertig, A. T., 1958, Studies of the function of early human trophoblast, Am.J. Obstet. Gynecol. 75:699.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Mentasti, P., 1959, II protidogramma del liquido amniotico valutazione con microelettroforesi libra, Minerva Ginecol. 2:547.Google Scholar
  154. Michie, E. A., and Robertson, J. G., 1971, Amniotic and urinary oestriol assays in pregnancies complicated by rhesus immunization, J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 78:34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Monaghan, J. M., Horn, D. B., and Brock, D. J. H., 1973, Alphaj-antitrypsin in amniotic fluid. Lancet 2:619.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Monie, I. W., 1953, The volume of the amniotic fluid in the early months of pregnancy. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 66:616.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Monif, G. R. G., and Mendenhall, H. W., 1970, Immunoglobulin G levels and the titers of specific antiviral antibodies in amniotic fluid, Am.J. Obstet. Gynecol. 108:651.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Moore, W. M. O., Murphy, P. J., and Davis, J. A., 1971, Creatinine content of amniotic fluid in cases of retarded fetal growth. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 110:908.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Muller-Eberhard, U., and Bashore, R., 1970, Assessment of Rh disease by ratios of albumin and hemopexin to albumin in amniotic fluid, N. Engl. J. Med. 282:1163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Müller-Tyl, E., Lempert, J., Steinbereithner, K., et al., 1975, Surface properties of the amniotic fluid in normal pregnancy. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 122:295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Murphy, B. E. P., Patrick, J., and Denton, R. L., 1975, Cortisol in amniotic fluid during human gestation, y. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 40:164.Google Scholar
  162. Nadler, H. L., and Messina, A. M., 1969, In utero detection of type II glycogenosis (Pompe’s disease). Lancet 2:1277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Nadler, H. L., Bigley, R. H., and Hug, G., 1970, Prenatal detection of Pompe’s disease. Lancet 2:369.Google Scholar
  164. Nelson, M. M., 1972, Amniotic fluid volumes in early pregnancy, J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 79:50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Nelson, M. M., and Emery, A. E. H., 1970, Amniotic fluid cells, prenatal sex prediction and culture, Med.J. 1:523.Google Scholar
  166. Newman, R. L., and Tutera, G., 1976, The glucose-insulin ratio in amniotic fluid. Obstet. Gynecol. 47:599.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Nicholls, T., Hähnel, R., Wilkinson, S., et al., 1976, Identification of 2-hydroxybutyric acid in human amniotic fluid, Clin. Chim. Acta 69:127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Nicholls, T. M., Hähnel, R., and Wilkinson, S. P., 1978, Organic acids in amniotic fluid, Clin. Chim. Acta 84:11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Niswander, K. R., 1970, Spectrophotometric analysis of amniotic fluid in early gestation. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 108:1296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. O’Brien, J. S., Okada, S., Fillerup, D. L., et al., 1971, Tay-Sachs disease: Prenatal diagnosis. Science 172:61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Ojala, A., 1971, Studies on Bilirubin in Amniotic Fluid with Special Reference to Liver Function Tests, Kirjapaino Osakeyhtio Kaleva Oulu, Finland.Google Scholar
  172. O’Leary, J. A., and Bezjian, A. A., 1971, Amniotic fluid fetal maturity score. Obstet. Gynecol. 38:375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. O’Neill, R. T., Morrow, G., III, Hammel, D., et al., 1971, Diagnostic significance of amniotic fluid amino acids. Obstet. Gynecol. 37:550.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Osathanondh, R., Chopra, I. J., Tulchinsky, D., et al., 1978, Amniotic fluid reverse triiodothyronine in complicated pregnancy, Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 46:365.Google Scholar
  175. Ostergard, D. R., 1970, The physiology and clinical importance of amniotic fluid: A review, Obstet. Gynecol. Surv. 25:297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Pacsa, A. S., and Pejtsik, B., 1977, Impairment of immunity during pregnancy and antiviral effect of amniotic fluid. Lancet 1:330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Palliez, R., Bisert, G., Savary, J., et al., 1956, Biochemie amniotique, complexes proteiques, acides organiques et cetoniques. Bull. Soc. R. Beige Gynecol. Obstet. 26:446.Google Scholar
  178. Papp, Z., Ember, I., Juhasz, E., et al., 1977, Acid-soluble glycoproteins in amniotic fluid and cystic fibrosis of the foetus, Clin. Genet. 11:431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Parmley, T. H., and Seeds, A. E., 1970, Fetal skin permeability to isotopic water (THO) in early pregnancy. Am.J. Obstet. Gynecol. 108:128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Perlman, M., 1973, Golden liquor amnii. Lancet 1:556.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Phillips, L. L., and Davidson, E. C., 1972, Procoagulant properties of amniotic fluid. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 113:911.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Pinkus, G. S., and Pinkus, J. L., 1970, Fluorometric determination of total estrogens in amniotic fluid of normal and complicated pregnancies. Obstet. Gynecol. 36:528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Pitkin, R. M., and Reynolds, W. A., 1975, Fetal ingestion and metabolism of amniotic fluid protein, Am.J. Obstet. Gynecol. 23:356.Google Scholar
  184. Pitkin, R. M., and Swirek, S. J., 1967, Amniotic fluid creatinine. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 98:1135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Plentl, A. A., and Hutchinson, D. L., 1953, Determination of deuterium exchange rates between maternal circulation and amniotic fluid, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 82:681.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Pokiodova, N. V., Babaian, S. S., and Ermolieva, Z. V., 1971, Vydelenie lizotsima iz platsenty cheioveka, Antibiotiki 16:456.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Pomerance, W., Biezenski, J. J., Moltz, A., et al., 1971, Origin of amniotic fluid lipids. II. Abnormal pregnancy. Obstet. Gynecol. 38:379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Potier, M., Dallaire, L., and Melancon, S. B., 1975, Occurrence and properties of fetal intestinal glycosidases (disaccharidases) in human amniotic fluid, Biol. Neonate 27:141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Potier, M., Dallaire, L., and Melancon, S. B., 1977, Prenatal detection of intestinal obstruction by disaccharidase assay in amniotic fluid. Lancet 2:982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Potier, M., Melancon, S. B., and Dallaire, L., 1978, Developmental patterns of intestinal disaccharidases in human amniotic fluid. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 131:73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Potter, E. L., 1965, Bilateral absence of ureters and kidneys. A report of 50 cases, J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 25:3.Google Scholar
  192. Prevedourakis, C., Stringou-Charlabis, E., and Kaskarelis, D., 1971, Bacterial invasion of amniotic cavity during pregnancy and labor. Obstet. Gynecol. 37:459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Prevedourakis, C., Koumentakou, E., Zolotas, J., et al., 1976, E. coli growth inhibition by amniotic fluid. Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. 55:245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Prezestwor, E., 1964, Distribution of ABH group substances in amniotic fluid, Poznan. Tow. Przyj. Nauk. 29:197.Google Scholar
  195. Pritchard, J. A., 1965, Deglutition by normal and anencephalic fetuses. Obstet. Gynecol. 25:289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Pritchard, J. A., 1966, Fetal swallowing and amniotic fluid volume. Obstet. Gynecol. 28:606.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Putkonen, T., 1930a, Gruppenspezifischen Eigenschaften verschiedener Korperflüssigkeiten, Acta Soc. Med. Fenn. Duodecim Ser. A. 14:82.Google Scholar
  198. Putkonen, T., 1930b, Ueber die gruppenspezifischen Eigenschaften verschiedener Korperflüssigkeiten, Acta Soc. Med. Fenn. Duodecim Ser. A 14:113.Google Scholar
  199. Queenan, J. T., Gadow, E. C., Bachner, P., et al., 1970, Amniotic fluid proteins in normal and Rh-sensitized pregnancies. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 108:406.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Reid, D. W. J., Campbell, D. J., and Yakymyshyn, L. Y., 1971, Quantitative amino acids in amniotic fluid and matemal plasma in early and late pregnancy, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 111:251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Renwick, J. H., and Bölling, D. R., 1971, An analysis procedure illustrated on a triple linkage of use for prenatal diagnosis of myotonic dystrophy, J. Med. Genet. 8:399.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Renwick, J. H., and Lawler, S. D., 1955, Genetical linkage between the ABO and nail-patella loci, Ann. Hum. Genet. 19:312.Google Scholar
  203. Renwick, J. H., Bundey, S. E., Ferguson-Smith, M. A., et al., 1971, Confirmation of linkage of the loci for myotnoic dystrophy and ABH selection, J. Med. Genet. 8:407.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Rhodes, P., 1966, The volume of liquor amnii in early pregnancy, J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 73:23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Rivett, L. C., 1946, Hydramnios, Am.J. Obstet. Gynecol. 52:890.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Robertson, A. F., and Sprecher, H., 1968, A review of human placental lipid metabolism and transport. Acta Paediatr. Scand. Suppl. 183:3.Google Scholar
  207. Robinson, J. D., Judd, H. L., Young, P. E., et al., 1977, Amniotic fluid androgens and estrogens in midgestation, J.Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 45:755.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Roopnarinesingh, S., 1970, Amniotic fluid creatinine in normal and abnormal pregnancies, J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 77:785.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Roopnarinesingh, S., 1973, Amniotic fluid creatinine, 7. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 80:611.Google Scholar
  210. Roopnarinesingh, A., and Morris, D., 1971, Amniotic fluid urea and creatinine in normal pregnancy and in pre-eclampsia, J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 78:29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Roux, J. F., Nakamura, J., and Brown, E. G., 1973, Further observations on the determination of gestational age by amniotic fluid analysis. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 116:633.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Roux, J. F., Nakamura, J., and Frosolono, M., 1974, Fatty acid composition and concentration of lecithin in the acetone fraction of amniotic fluid phospholipids. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 119:838.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Rozansky, S., Persky, B., and Bercovici, B., 1962, Antibacterial action of human cervical mucus, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 110:876.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Rule, A. H., Lawrence, D., Hager, H. J., et al., 1971, IgA: Presence in meconium obtained from patients with cystic fibrosis. Pediatrics 48:601.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Salafsky, I. S., and Nadler, H. L., 1971, Intracellular organelles and enzymes in cell-free amniotic fluid. Am.J. Obstet. Gynecol. 111:1046.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Salmon, J., Lambotte, R., and Sroliar, V., 1962, Etude par immunofluorescence de la secretion du liquide amniotique humain, Arch. Int. Physiol. Biochim. 70:731.Google Scholar
  217. Sarkany, I., and Gaylarde, C. C., 1968, The effect of amniotic fluid in bacterial growth, Br. J. Dermatol. 80:241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Schenker, J. G., Ben-David, M., and Polishuk, W. Z., 1975, Prolactin in normal pregnancy: Relationship of maternal, fetal, and amniotic fluid levels. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 123:834.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Schlievert, P., Johnson, W., and Galask, R. P., 1976a, Bacterial growth inhibition by amniotic fluid. VI. Evidence for a zinc-peptide antibacterial system. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 125:906.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Schlievert, P., Johnson, W., and Galask, R. P., 1976b, Bacterial growth inhibition by amniotic fluid. V. Phosphate-to-zinc ratio as a predictor of bacterial growth-inhibitory activity. Am.J. Obstet. Gynecol. 125:899.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Schumacher, G. F. B., and Pearl, M. J., 1969, Cyclic changes of muramidase (lysozyme in cervical mucus), y. Reprod. Med. 3:105.Google Scholar
  222. Schweitzer, M., and Giroud, C. J. P., 1971, A comparison of the pattern of steroid glucuronides and sulfates in maternal plasma, umbilical cord plasma, and amniotic fluid. II, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 33:793.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Sciarra, J. J., Tagatz, G. E., Notation, A. D., et al., 1974, Estriol and estetrol in amniotic fluid, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 118:626.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Scott, C. R., Teng, C. C., Sagerson, R. N., et al., 1972, Amino acids in amniotic fluid: Changes in concentrations during the first half of pregnancy, Pediatr. Res. 6:659.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Scott, J. S., 1966, The volume and circulation of the liquor amnii: Clinical observations, Proc. R. Soc. Med. 59:1128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Scott, J. S., and Bain, A. D., 1958, Amnion nodosum, Proc. R. Soc. Med. 51:512.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Scott, J. S., and Wilson, J. K., 1957, Hydramnios as an early sign of esophageal atresia. Lancet 1:569.Google Scholar
  228. Seeds, A. E., Jr., 1968, Amniotic fluid and fetal water metabolism, in: Intrauterine Development (A. C. Barnes, ed.), p. 129, Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  229. Seeds, A. E., Jr., 1974, Dynamics of amniotic fluid, in: Amniotic Fluid (A. Scommegna and M. B. Epstein, eds.), p. 23, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  230. Seppala, M., Aho, I., Tissari, A., et al., 1972, Radioimmunoassay of oxytocin in amniotic fluid, fetal urine, and meconium during late pregnancy and delivery. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 114:788.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Shah, S. I., Alderman, M., Queenan, J. Y., et al., 1972, Nondialyzable peptide-bound hydroxyproHne in human amniotic fluid: An indicator of fetal growth. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 114:250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Sharma, S. D., and Trussell, R. R., 1970, The value of amniotic fluid examination in the assessment of fetal maturity, J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 77:215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Singh, E. J., and Zuspan, F. P., 1974, Content of amniotic fluid prostaglandins in normal, diabetic, and drug-abuse human pregnancy. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 118:358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Sivakumaran, T., Duncan, M. L., Effer, S. B., et al., 1975, Relationship between Cortisol and lecithin/sphingomyelin ratios in human amniotic fluid. Am.J. Obstet. Gynecol. 122:291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Smith, A. L., and Scanlon, J., 1973, Amnionic fluid D(-)-β-hydroxybutyrate and the dysmature newborn infant. Am.J. Obstet. Gynecol. 115:569.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Southern, A. L., Kobayashi, Y., Brenner, P., et al., 1965, Diamine oxidase activity in human maternal and fetal plasma and tissues at parturition, J. Appl. Physiol. 20:1048.Google Scholar
  237. Stevenson, A. C., Davison, B. C. C., and Oakes, M. W., 1976, Genetic Counseling, 2nd ed., Lippincott, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  238. Strebel, L., 1960, Immunoelectrophoretic studies of amniotic fluid. Comparison with umbilical cord blood and maternal venous blood, Biol. Neonate 2:55.Google Scholar
  239. Sutcliffe, R. G., 1972, Studies on the protein in amniotic fluid, PhD. thesis, Edinburgh University.Google Scholar
  240. Sutcliffe, R. G., 1975, The nature and origin of the soluble proteins in human amniotic fluid, Biol. Rev. 50:1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Sutcliffe, R. G., and Brock, D. J. H., 1972, Observations on the origins of amniotic fluid enzymes, J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 79:902.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Sutcliffe, R. G., and Brock, D. J. H., 1973, Immunological studies on the nature and origin of the major proteins in amniotic fluid, J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 80:721.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Sutcliffe, R. G., Brock, D. J. H., Robertson, J. G., et al., 1972a, Enzymes in amniotic fluid: A study of specific activity patterns during pregnancy, J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 79:895.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Sutcliffe, R. G., Brock, D. J. H., and Scrimgeour, J. B., 1972b, Origin of amniotic fluid groupspecific component, Nature (London) 238:400.Google Scholar
  245. Swanberg, H., 1950, Histaminase in pregnancy, Acta Physiol. Scand. 23:41.Google Scholar
  246. Symonds, E. M., Williams, S. S., and Cellier, K. M., 1971, Maternal and fetal influences on the acid-base balance of human amniotic fluid. Obstet. Gynecol. 37:742.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Tafari, N., Ross, S. M., Naeye, R. L., et al., 1977, Failure of bacterial growth inhibition by amniotic fluid. Am.J. Obstet. Gynecol. 128:187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Tervila, L., 1964, Transfer of water from maternal blood to amniotic fluid of live and dead fetuses in health and in some pathological conditions of the mother: A study with tritium-labelled water, Chir. Gynaecol. Fenn. Suppl. 53:131.Google Scholar
  249. Thadepalli, H., Appleman, M. D., Maidman, J. E., et al., 1977, Antimicrobial effect of amniotic fluid against anaerobic bacteria. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 127:250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Thomas, C. R., Lang, E. K., and Lloyd, F. P., 1963, Fetal pyelography—A method for detecting fetal life: A preliminary report, Obstet. Gynecol. 22:335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Turowska, B., and Bromboszca, A., 1967, ABO group substances in the amniotic fluid, Przegl. Lek. 23:731.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Usategui-Gomez, M., 1974, Immunoglobulins and other proteins in amniotic fluid, in: Amniotic Fluid (S. Natelson, A. Scommegno, and M. B. Epstein, eds.), pp. 111–124, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  253. Usategui-Gomez, M., and Morgan, D. F., 1966, Maternal origin of the group specific (Gc) proteins in amniotic fluid, Nature (London) 212:1600.Google Scholar
  254. Uuspaa, V. J., 1951, High histaminase activity of human blood in pregnancy and in so-called placental haemochoriatis, Ann. Med. Exp. Biol. Fenn. 29:81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Uyeno, D., 1919, The physical properties and chemical composition of human amniotic fluid, J. Biol. Chem. 37:77.Google Scholar
  256. Vernier, J., Piquard, M., Attarl, B., et al., 1969, Etude electrophoretique et immunoelectrophoretique des proteins du liquide amniotique, C. R. Soc. Biol. 163:1835.Google Scholar
  257. Viergiver, E., Stroup, P. E., Scheff, M. F., et al., 1962, Fractionation of amniotic fluid proteins by zone electrophoresis, Obstet. Gynecol. 19:664.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. Vikrot, O., 1964, Quantitative determination of plasma phospholipids in pregnant and non-pregnant women, with special reference to lysolecithin. Acta Med. Scand. 175:443.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Wagner, G., and Fuchs, F., 1962, The volume of amniotic fluid in the first half of human pregnancy, J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 69:131.Google Scholar
  260. Walsh, H., Hildebrandt, R., and Prystowsky, H., 1965, Growth inhibition factors in amniotic fluid. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 95:590.Google Scholar
  261. Wiederschain, G. Y., Rosenfeld, E. L., Brusilovsky, A. I., et al., 1971, L-Fucosidase and other glycosidases in human placenta, fetus liver, and amniotic fluid at various stages of gestation, Clin. Chim. Acta 35:99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. Wild, A. E., 1961, The association between protein and bilirubin in liquor amnii, Clin. Sci. 21:221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Wilfert, C. M., and Gradoville, M. L., 1974, In vitro viral studies of cells grown from human amniotic fluid samples. Am.J. Obstet. Gynecol. 118:1073.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Wolf, R. O., and Taussig, L. M., 1973, Human amniotic fluid isoamylases: Functional development of fetal pancreas and salivary glands, Obstet. Gynecol. 41:337.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Aubrey Milunsky 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aubrey Milunsky
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  2. 2.Genetics DivisionEunice Kennedy Shriver CenterWalthamUSA
  3. 3.Children’s ServiceMassachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations