Fetoscopy and Fetal Blood Sampling

  • Maurice J. Mahoney
  • John C. Hobbins


Exciting successes in fetal diagnostic medicine have resulted from the study of amniotic fluid and its cells during the past decade. These studies have accomplished extensive definition of the fetus, including its karyotype, the presence or absence of many inborn errors of metabolism, and the diagnosis of several developmental anomalies. However, inasmuch as amniocentesis and the study of amniotic cells have given us a window to the fetus, they have also emphasized the limitations of that view. Amniotic fluid and amniotic cells reveal only limited information about the genetic and metabolic status of the fetus and even less about fetal morphology. For example, diseases characterized by enzyme or other protein abnormalities in liver, muscle, endocrine glands, or blood cells often cannot be diagnosed from amniotic fluid studies available today. Also, modern imaging techniques, using X rays or sound waves, still cannot clearly define many major anatomical abnormalities.


Sickle Cell Anemia Amniotic Fluid Prenatal Diagnosis Chronic Granulomatous Disease Fetal Blood 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Aubrey Milunsky 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maurice J. Mahoney
    • 1
  • John C. Hobbins
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Human GeneticsYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA
  2. 2.Department of Obstetrics-GynecologyYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA

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