The Changing American Family and Its Implications for Infant Social Development: The Sample Case of Maternal Employment

  • Michael E. Lamb
  • Lindsay Chase-Lansdale
  • Margaret Tresch Owen
Part of the Genesis of Behavior book series (GOBE, volume 2)


Within the last decade, major changes have occurred in the way psychologists view psychosocial development in infancy. Prominent among these are conceptual advances bringing the realization that infants play an active role in their socialization, and an acknowledgment that the infant’s social world is a multidimensional one, comprising relationships with mother, father, sibling(s), and, to an increasing extent, peers.


Child Development Implicit Theory Maternal Employment Psychosocial Development Maternal Sensitivity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ainsworth, M. D. S. Object relations, dependency, and attachment: A theoretical review of the infant mother relationship. Child Development, 1969, 40, 969–1025.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ainsworth, M. D. S. Attachment and dependency: A comparison. In J. L. Gewirtz (Ed.), Attachment and dependency. Washington, D.C.: Winston, 1972.Google Scholar
  3. Ainsworth M. D., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E. C., & Wall, S. N. The strange situation:Observing pattern of behavior. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1978.Google Scholar
  4. Araji, S. K. Husbands’ and wives’ attitude-behavior congruence on family roles, journalof Marriage and the Family, 1977, 39, 309–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arbeit, S. A. A study of women during their first pregnancy. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Yale University, 1975.Google Scholar
  6. Bell, R. Q. Stimulus control of parent or caretaker behavior by offspring. DevelopmentalPsychology, 1971, 4, 63–72.Google Scholar
  7. Bell, R. Q. Contributions of human infants to caregiving and social interaction. In M. Lewis & L. Rosenblum (Eds.), The effect of the infant on its caregiver. New York: Wiley, 1974.Google Scholar
  8. Bell, R. Q., & Harper, L. V. Child effects on adults. Hillsdale, N. J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1977.Google Scholar
  9. Bowlby, J. The nature of the child’s tie to his mother. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 1958, 39, 350–373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bowlby, J. Attachment and loss (Vol. 1). Attachment. New York: Basic Books, 1969.Google Scholar
  11. Bronfenbrenner, U. The next generation of Americans. Paper presented at the American Association of Advertising Agencies, Dorado, Puerto Rico, March, 1975.Google Scholar
  12. Carey, W. B. A simplified method for measuring infant temperament. Journal of Pediatrics 1970, 77, 188–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cohen, S. E. Caregiver-child interaction and competence in pre-term children. Paper presented at the Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, New Orleans, March, 1977.Google Scholar
  14. Corter, C., Trehub, S., Boukydis, C., Ford, L., Celhoffer, L., & Minde, K. Nurses’ judgments of the attractiveness of premature infants. Unpublished manuscript, University of Toronto, 1977.Google Scholar
  15. Cowan, C., Cowan, A. P., Coie, L., & Coie, J. Becoming a family: The impact of a first child’s birth on the couple’s relationships. In L. Newman & W. Miller (Eds.), Thefirst child and family formation. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press 1977Google Scholar
  16. Donovan, W, & Leavitt, L. Early cognitive development and its relation to maternal physiologic and behavioral responsiveness. Paper presented to the Society for Research in Child Development, New Orleans, 1977.Google Scholar
  17. Donovan, W. L., Leavitt, L. A., & Balling, J. D. Maternal physiological responses to infant signals. Psychophysiology, 1978, 15, 68–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Edwards, C. P., & Whiting, B. B. Dependency in dyadic context: New meaning for an old construct. Paper presented to the Eastern Psychological Association, New York April, 1976.Google Scholar
  19. Eichler, L. S., Winickoff, S. A., Grossman, F. K., Anzalone, M. K., & Gofseyeff, M. H. Adaptation to pregnancy, birth, and early parenting: A preliminary view. Paper presented to the American Psychological Association, San Francisco, Calif August 1977.Google Scholar
  20. Emlen, A. C., & Perry, J. B. Child care arrangements. In L. W. Hoffman & I. Nye (Eds.), Working mothers. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1975.Google Scholar
  21. Erikson, E. Childhood and society. New York: Norton, 1950.Google Scholar
  22. Freud, S. An outline of psychoanalysis. New York: Norton, 1949.Google Scholar
  23. Frodi, A. M, Lamb, M. E., Leavitt, L. A., & Donovan, W. L. Father’s and mothers-responses to infant smiles and cries. Infant Behavior and Development 1978 1 187–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Frodi, A. M., Lamb, M. E., Leavitt, L. A., Donovan, W. L., Neff, C., & Sherry, D. Fathers’ and mothers’ responses to the faces and cries of normal and premature infants Developmental Psychology, 1978, 14, 490–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hartup, W. W. Peer interaction and the behavioral development of the individual child. In E. Schopler and R. J. Reichler (Eds.), Psychopathology and child development. New York: Plenum, 1976.Google Scholar
  26. Hoffman, L. W. Effects of maternal employment on the child—A review of the research. Developmental Psychology, 1974, 10, 204–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hoffman, L. W. Effects of the first child on the woman’s role. In W. Miller & L. Newman (Eds.), The first child and family formation. Chapel Hill: North Carolina Press, 1977.Google Scholar
  28. Konner, M. Relations among infants and juveniles in comparative perspective. In M.Lewis & L. A. Rosenblum (Eds.), Friendship and peer relations. New York: Wiley, 1975.Google Scholar
  29. Lamb, M. E. The role of the father: An overview. In M. E. Lamb (Ed.), The role of the fatherin child development. New York: Wiley, 1976.Google Scholar
  30. Lamb, M. E. Father-infant and mother-infant interaction in the first year of life ChildDevelopment, 1977a, 48, 167–181.Google Scholar
  31. Lamb, M. E. The development of parental preferences in the first two years of life SexRoles, 1977b, 3, 495–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lamb, M. E. Interactions between 18-month-olds and their preschool-aged siblings ChildDevelopment, 1978a, 49, 51–59.Google Scholar
  33. Lamb, M. E. The effects of the social context on dyadic social interaction. In M. E. Lamb, S. J. Suomi, & G. R. Stephenson (Eds.), Social interaction analysis: Methodologicalissues. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1978b.Google Scholar
  34. Lamb, M. E. The father’s role in the infant’s social world. In J. H. Stevens & M. Mathews (Eds.), Mother/child, father/child relationships. Washington: National Association for the Education of Young Children, 1978c.Google Scholar
  35. Lamb, M. E. The influence of the child on marital quality and family interaction during the prenatal, paranatal and infancy periods. In R. M. Lerner & G. B. Spanier (Eds.), Child influences on marital and family interaction: A life-span perspective. New York: Academic, 1978d.Google Scholar
  36. Lamb, M. E., & Easterbrooks, M. A. Individual differences in parental sensitivity to infants: Some thoughts about origins, components, and consequences. In M. E. Lamb & L. R. Sherrod (Eds.), Infant social cognition. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, in preparation.Google Scholar
  37. Lamb, M. E., & Stevenson, M. B. Father-infant relationships: Their nature and importance. Youth & Society, 1978, 9, 277–298.Google Scholar
  38. Lewis, M., & Rosenblum, L. A. (Eds.). The effect of the infant on its caregiver. New York: Wiley, 1974.Google Scholar
  39. Maccoby, E., & Masters, J. C. Attachment and dependency. In P. H. Müssen (Ed.), Carmichael’s manual of child psychology (Vol. 2) 3d ed. New York: Wiley, 1970.Google Scholar
  40. Mueller, E., & Vandell, D. Infant-infant interaction. In J. Osofsky (Ed.), Handbook of infantdevelopment. New York: Wiley, 1979.Google Scholar
  41. Parke, R. D., & Sawin, D. B. Infant characteristics and behavior as elicitors of maternal and paternal responsivity in the newborn period. Paper presented to the Society for Research in Child Development, Denver, April, 1975.Google Scholar
  42. Pedersen, F. A. Mother, father, and infant as an interactive system. Paper presented to the American Psychological Association, Chicago, September 1975.Google Scholar
  43. Perloff, R. M., & Lamb, M. E. The development of gender roles: An integrative life-span perspective. Unpublished manuscript, University of Michigan, 1978.Google Scholar
  44. Rheingold, H. L. The social and socializing infant. In D. A. Goslin (Ed.), Socializationtheory and research. Chicago: Rand McNally & Co., 1969.Google Scholar
  45. Robinson, J. P. How Americans use time: A sociological perspective. New York: Praeger, 1977.Google Scholar
  46. Rubenstein, J., & Howes, C. The effects of peers on toddler interaction with mother and toys. Child Development, 1976, 47, 597–605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Saunders, M. M., & Keister, M. E. Family day care: Some observations. Unpublished manuscript, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 1972.Google Scholar
  48. Sawin, D. B., & Parke, R. D. Infant characteristics and behavior as elicitors of maternal and paternal responsibility in the newborn period. Paper presented to the Society for Research in Child Development. Denver, April, 1975.Google Scholar
  49. Schaffer, H. R. (Ed.). Studies in mother-infant interaction. New York: Academic, 1977.Google Scholar
  50. Suomi, S. J., & Harlow, H. F. The role and reason of peer relationships in rhesus monkeys. In M. Lewis & L. A. Rosenblum (Eds.), Friendship and peer relations. New York: Wiley, 1975.Google Scholar
  51. Suomi, S. J., & Harlow, H. F. Early experience and social development in rhesus monkeys. In M. E. Lamb (Ed.), Social and personality development. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, 1978.Google Scholar
  52. Sutton-Smith, B., & Rosenberg, B. G. The sibling. New York: Holt, Rinehart, &: Winston, 1970.Google Scholar
  53. Thomas, A., & Chess, S. Temperament and development. New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1977.Google Scholar
  54. Winett, R. A., Fuchs, W L., Moffatt, S. A., & Nerviano, V. J. A cross-sectional study of children and their families in different child care environments: Some data and conclusions. Journal of Community Psychology, 1977, 5, 149–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael E. Lamb
    • 1
  • Lindsay Chase-Lansdale
    • 1
  • Margaret Tresch Owen
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Human Growth and Development and Department of PsychologyUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

Personalised recommendations