All solids are made up of atoms that are held together by the interaction of the outermost (valence) electrons. The valence electrons can move freely in the solid but can only exist in certain stable patterns within the confines of the solid. The nature of the patterns varies according to the ionic, metallic, or covalent bonding. The primary type of bonding can be determined by considering the affinity of atoms for electrons called electronegativity. Atoms like fluorine and oxygen have a high electronegativity because of their propensity to complete their valence shell while inert gases like neon and argon have low electronegativity because their valence shells are already filled.
KeywordsCoordination Number Free Volume Crystal System Interstitial Atom Atomic Volume
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- A. H. Cottrell, “The Nature of Metals,” in Materials, ed. D. Flanagan et al., W. H. Freeman & Co., San Francisco, 1967.Google Scholar
- R. H. Krock and M. L. Ebner, Ceramics, Plastics, and Metals, chapter 3, D. C. Heath Co., Boston, Massachusetts, 1965.Google Scholar
- W. G. Moffatt, G. W. Pearsall, and J. Wulff, The Structure and Properties of Materials, vol. I, Structure, chapters 1–3, J. Wiley and Sons, New York, 1964.Google Scholar
- L. Pauling, The Nature of Chemical Bonding, 3rd ed., chapter 2, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, 1960.Google Scholar
- M. J. Starfield and A. M. Shrager, Introductory Materials, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1972.Google Scholar