Clonal Growth Versus Cell Mingling

  • John D. West
Part of the Basic Life Sciences book series (BLSC, volume 12)


The variegated patterns seen in tissues of chimaeras and mosaics should tell us something about the developmental histories of these tissues. A number of ingenious approaches have been made to try to analyse these patterns, but there is still considerable controversy about the interpretation and relevance of this type of analysis (Mintz 1974; McLaren 1976; West 1978). Comparative analysis between different groups of animals or tissues, or between individuals of different ages, offers one of the more reliable approaches since this type of analysis is not dependent on precise numerical estimates. Even this approach, however, requires some caution and, in the past, a number of inappropriate comparisons have been made. It is essential to understand the contribution of the different elements to the total variegated pattern before a meaningful comparison can be made. The purpose of this article is to consider the organisation of variegated patterns seen in chimaeras and mosaics, and how the degrees of cell mixing and clonal growth in different groups of animals may be compared.


Patch Size Small Patch Clonal Growth Variegated Pattern Genetic Mosaic 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Deol, M. S. and W. K. Whitten. 1972. Time of X chromosome inac-tivation in retinal melanocytes of the mouse. Nature New Biol. 238: 159–160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Falconer, D. S. and P. J. Avery. 1978. Variability of chimaeras and mosaics. J. Embryol. exp. Morph. 43: 195–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Gartler, S. M. 1976. Utilization of mosaic systems in the study of the origin and progression of tumors. In, Chromosomes and Cancer, J. German, Ed., pp. 313–334. Wiley-Interscience, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Gartler, S. M. and R. J. Andina. 1976. Mammalian X-chromosome inactivation. Adv. Hum. Genet. 7: 99–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Linder, D. and S. M. Gartler. 1965. Distribution of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase electrophoretic variants in different tissues of heterozygotes. Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 17: 212–220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. McLaren, A. 1976. Mammalian Chimaeras. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge-London.Google Scholar
  7. McLaren, A. and P. Bowman. 1969. Mouse chimaeras derived from fusion of embryos differing by nine genetic factors. Nature, Lond. 224: 238–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Mintz, B. 1974. Gene control of mammalian differentiation. Ann. Rev. Genetics 8: 411–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Nesbitt, M. N. 1974. Chimeras vs. X inactivation mosaicism in the mouse. Dev. Biol. 26: 252–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Sanyal, S. and G. H. Zeilmaker. 1977. Cell lineage in retinal development of mice studied in experimental chimaeras. Nature, Lond. 265: 731–733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Searle, A. G. 1978. Evidence from mutable genes concerning the origin of the germ line. In, Genetic Mosaics and Chimeras in Mammals, Liane B. Russell, Ed. Plenum Press, New York and London.Google Scholar
  12. West, J. D. 1975. A theoretical approach to the relation between patch size and clone size in chimaeric tissue. J. theor. Biol. 50: 153–160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. West, J. D. 1976. Clonal development of the retinal epithelium in mouse chimaeras and X-inactivation mosaics. J. Embryol. exp. Morph. 35: 445–461.Google Scholar
  14. West, J. D. 1978. Analysis of clonal growth using chimaeras and mosaics. In, Development in Mammals 3, M. H. Johnson, Ed. North-Holland, Amsterdam. In press.Google Scholar
  15. Whitten, W. K. 1978. Combinatorial and computer analysis of random mosaics. In, Genetic Mosaics and Chimeras in Mammals, Liane B. Russell, Ed. Plenum Press, New York and London.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • John D. West
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of OxfordOxfordEngland

Personalised recommendations