Advertisement

Hypoxanthine Guanine Phosphoribosyl Transferase Expression in Early Mouse Development

  • Paul G. Kratzer
  • Stanley M. Gartler
Part of the Basic Life Sciences book series (BLSC, volume 12)

Abstract

Dosage compensation for X-linked genes occurs by the process of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) in mammalian somatic cells (Lyon 1972). The inactivation of one X chromosome in females takes place early in development, although the exact time is unknown. One method of ascertaining the time of XCI is to determine the activity of the X chromosome at different stages of development as measured by the activity of an X-coded enzyme. Prior to XCI, and in the absence of other dosage compensating mechanisms, the activity for an embryonically expressed X-coded enzyme should be twice as high in female embryos with two X chromosomes, as in male embryos with one X chromosome. The distribution of enzyme activities for single embryos from a litter would have two equal-sized peaks that are separated by a factor of two. The convergence of the two peaks into one would indicate that XCI had occurred.

Keywords

Inner Cell Masse Dosage Compensation Female Embryo Hypoxanthine Guanine PHOSPHORIBOSYL Transferase Lower Upper 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adler, D. A., J. D. West, and V. M. Chapman. 1977. Expression of α-galactosidase in preimplantation mouse embryos. Nature, Lond. 267: 838–839.Google Scholar
  2. Chapman, V. M., J. D. West, and D. A. Adler. 1978. Bimodal distribution of α-galactosidase activities in mouse embryos. In, Genetic Mosaics and Chimeras in Mammals, Liane B. Russell, Ed. Plenum Press, New York and London.Google Scholar
  3. DeMars, R. 1967. The single-active X: functional differentiation at the chromosome level. Nat. Cancer Inst. Monogr. 26: 327–351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Deol, M. S. and W. K. Whitten. 1972. X-chromosome inactivation: does it occur at the same time in all cells of the embryo? Nature New Biol. 240: 277–279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Eklund, J. and G. E. Bradford. 1977. Genetic analysis of a strain of mice plateaued for litter size. Genetics 85: 529–542.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Epstein, C. J. 1972. Expression of the mammalian X chromosome before and after fertilization. Science 175: 1467–1468.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Epstein, C. J. 1975. Gene expression and macromolecular synthesis during preimplantation embryonic development. Biol. Reprod. 12: 82–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Epstein, C. J., S. Smith, B. Travis, and G. Tucker. 1978. Both X chromosomes function prior to X-chromosome inactivation in female mouse embryos. Nature, Lond., in press.Google Scholar
  9. Epstein, C. J., B. Travis, G. Tucker, and S. Smith. 1978. The direct demonstration of an X-chromosome dosage effect. In, Genetic Mosaics and Chimeras in Mammals, Liane B. Russell, Ed. Plenum Press, New York and London.Google Scholar
  10. Gardner, R. L. and M. F. Lyon. 1971. X-chromosome inactivation studied by injection of a single cell into the mouse blastocyst. Nature 231: 385–386.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Johnson, M. H., A. H. Handyside, and P. R. Braude. 1977. Control mechanisms in early mammalian development. In, Development in Mammals, Volume 2. M. H. Johnson, Ed.Google Scholar
  12. Kratzer, P. G. and S. M. Gartler. 1978. HGPRT activity changes in preimplantation mouse embryos. Nature, Lond., in press.Google Scholar
  13. Lyon, M. F. 1972. X-chromosome inactivation and developmental patterns in mammals. Biol. Rev. 47: 1–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. McLaren, A. 1976. Growth from fertilization to birth in the mouse. In, Embryogenesis in Mammals (CIBA Found. Symp. 40 New Series), Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 47–51.Google Scholar
  15. Monk, M. 1978a. Biochemical studies on mammalian X-chromosome activity. In, Development in Mammals, Volume 3. M. H. Johnson, Ed.Google Scholar
  16. Monk, M. 1978b. Biochemical studies on X-chromosome activity in preimplantation mouse embryos. In, Genetic Mosaics and Chimeras in Mammals, Liane B. Russell, Ed. Plenum Press, New York and London.Google Scholar
  17. Monk, M. and H. Kathuria. 1977. Dosage compensation for an X-linked gene in preimplantation mouse embryos. Nature, Lond. 270: 599–601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Nesbitt, M. N. 1971. X-chromosome inactivation mosaicism in the mouse. Develop. Biol. 26: 252–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Solter, D. and B. B. Knowles. 1975. Immunosurgery of mouse blastocyst. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 72: 5099–5102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Takagi, N. 1974. Differentiation of X chromosomes in early female mouse embryos. Exp. Cell Res. 86: 127–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Takagi, N. 1978. Preferential inactivation of the paternally derived X chromosome in mice. In, Genetic Mosaics and Chimeras in Mammals, Liane B. Russell, Ed. Plenum Press, New York and London.Google Scholar
  22. Takagi, N. and M. Sasaki. 1975. Preferential inactivation of the paternally derived X chromosome in the extraembryonic membranes of the mouse. Nature, Lond. 256: 640–642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. West, J. D., V. E. Papaioannou, W. I. Frels, and V. M. Chapman. 1978. Preferential expression of the maternally derived X chromosome in extraembryonic tissues of the mouse. In, Genetic Mosaics and Chimeras in Mammals, Liane B. Russell, Ed. Plenum Press, New York and London.Google Scholar
  24. West, J. D., W. I. Frels, V. M. Chapman, and V. E. Papaioannou. 1977. Preferential expression of the maternally derived X chromosome in the mouse yolk sac. Cell 12: 873–882.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul G. Kratzer
    • 1
  • Stanley M. Gartler
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of Genetics and MedicineUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations