Advertisement

Avoidance Learning

  • J. B. Overmier
Part of the NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series book series (NSSA, volume 19)

Abstract

Review of the experimental and theoretical analysis of avoidance behaviors can provide fascinating insights into the development of the psychology of learning in America. This is because problems in the analysis of avoidance behaviors often stimulated the development of new experimental designs and new theoretical concepts which in turn had substantial impact upon how we interpreted all other learning phenomena. Most simply, the phenomenon of avoidance learning was always--and continues to be--a source of difficulties. The difficulties are of three types: (a) paradigmatic, (b) methodological, and (c) theoretical. We shall consider each in turn.

Keywords

Avoidance Behavior Classical Conditioning Avoidance Response Avoidance Learning Avoidance Training 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anderson, N. H. Comparison of different populations: Resistance to extinction and transfer. Psychological Review, 1963, 70, 162–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bitterman, M. E. The CS-US interval in classical and avoidance conditioning. In W. F. Prokasy (Ed.), Classical Conditioning. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1965.Google Scholar
  3. Bitterman, M. E., Reed, P. C., & Krauskopf, J. The effect of the duration of the unconditioned stimulus upon conditioning and extinction. American Journal of Psychology, 1952, 65, 256–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blanchard, R. J., & Blanchard, D. C. Crouching as an index of fear. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1969, 67, 370–375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bolles, R. C. Avoidance and escape learning: Simultaneous acquisition of different responses. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1969, 68, 355–358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bolles, R. C. Species specific defense reactions and avoidance learning. Psychological Review, 1970, 71, 32–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bolles, R. C., & Riley, A. L. Freezing as an avoidance response: Another look at the operant-respondent distinction. Learning and Motivation, 1973, 4, 268–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bolles, R. C., Stokes, L. W., & Younger, M. S. Does CS termination reinforce avoidance behavior. Journal of Comparative Physiological Psychology, 1966, 62, 201–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bower, G., Starr, R., & Lazarovitz, L. Amount of response-produced change in the CS and avoidance learning. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1965, 59, 13–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brown, J. S., & Jacobs, A. The role of fear in the motivation and acquisition of responses. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1949, 39, 747–759.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brown, J. S., Kalish, H. I., & Farber, I. E. Conditioned fear as revealed by the magnitude of startle response to an auditory stimulus. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1951, 41, 317–328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bull, J. A. III, & Overmier, J. B. The additive and subtractive properties of excitation and inhibition. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1968, 66, 511–514.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Church, R. M., & Getty, D. J. Some consequences of the reaction to an aversive event. Psychological Bulletin, 1972, 78, 21–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cicala, G. A., & Owen, J. W. Warning signal termination and a feedback signal may not serve the same function. Learning and Motivation, 1976, 7, 356–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. D’Amato, M. R., & Schiff, D. Long-term discriminated avoidance performance in the rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1964, 57, 123–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. DiCara, L. V., & Miller, N. E. Changes in heart rate instrumentally learned by curarized rats as avoidance response. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1968, 65, 8–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dinsmoor, J. A. Punishment: I. The avoidance hypothesis. Psychological Review, 1954, 61, 34–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fonberg, E. Transfer of the conditioned avoidance reaction to the unconditioned noxious stimuli. Acta Biologiae Experimentalis (Warsaw), 1962, 22, 251–258.Google Scholar
  19. Gardner, E. T., & Lewis, P. Negative reinforcement with shock frequency increase. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1976, 25, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Herrnstein, R. J. Method and thoery in the study of avoidance. Psychological Review, 1969, 76, 49–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Herrnstein, R. J., & Hineline, P. N. Negative reinforcement as shock frequency reduction. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1966, 9, 421–430.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hineline, P. N. Negative reinforcement without shock reduction. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1970, 14, 259–268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hull, C. L. A functional interpretation of the conditioned reflex. Psychological Review, 1929, 36, 498–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hull, C. L. Principles of Behavior. New York: Appleton-Century-Croft, 1943.Google Scholar
  25. Hulse, S. H., Deese, J., & Egeth, H. The Psychology of Learning. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1975.Google Scholar
  26. Hurwitz, H. M. B. Method for discriminative avoidance training. Science, 1964, 145, 1070–1071.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hurwitz, H. M. B., Harzem, P., & Kulig, B. Comparisons of two measures of free-operant avoidance under two conditions of response feedback. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1972, 24, 92–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kamin, L. J. The effects of termination of the CS and avoidance of the US on avoidance learning. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1956, 49, 420–424.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Leaf, R. C. Acquisition of Sidman avoidance responding as a function of S-S interval. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1965, 59, 298–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mackintosh, N. J. The Psychology of Animal Learning. London: Academic Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  31. Maier, S. F., Albin, R. W., & Testa, T. J. Failure to learn to escape in rats previously exposed to inescapable shock depends on the nature of escape response. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1973, 85, 581–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. May, M. A. Experimentally acquired drives. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1948, 38, 66–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Miller, N. E. Studies of fear as an acquirable drive: I. Fear as motivation and fear reduction as reinforcement in the learning of new responses. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1948, 38, 89–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Miller, N. E. Comments on multiple-process conceptions of learning. Psychological Review, 1951, 58, 375–381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Moore, J. W., & Gormezzano, I. Yoked comparisons of instrumental and classical eyelid conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1961, 62, 552–559.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Morris, R. G. M. Pavlovian conditioned inhibition of fear during shuttlebox avoidance behavior. Learning and Motivation, 1974, 5, 424–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Morris, R. G. M. Preconditioning of reinforcing properties to an exteroceptive feedback stimulus. Learning and Motivation, 1975, 6, 289–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Moscovitch, A., & LoLordo, V. M. Role of safety in the Pavlovian backward fear conditioning procedure. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1968, 66, 673–678.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mowrer, O. H. On the dual nature of learning: A reinterpretation of “conditioning” and “problem solving.” Harvard Educational Review, 1947, 17, 102–148.Google Scholar
  40. Mowrer, O. H., & Lamoreaux, R. R. Fear as an intervening variable in avoidance conditioning. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 1946, 39, 29–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Olton, D. S. Shock-motivated avoidance and the analysis of behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 1973, 79, 243–251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Overmier, J. B. Differential transfer of control of avoidance responses as a function of UCS duration. Psychonomic Science, 1966, 5, 25–26. (a)Google Scholar
  43. Overmier, J. B. Instrumental and cardiac indices of Pavlovian fear conditioning as a function of UCS duration. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1966, 62, 15–20. (b)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Riess, D. Shuttleboxes, Skinner boxes, and Sidman avoidance in rats: Acquisition and terminal performance as a function of response topography. Psychonomic Science, 1971, 25, 283–286.Google Scholar
  45. Schlosberg, H. Conditioned responses in the white rats. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 1934, 45, 303–335.Google Scholar
  46. Schlosberg, H. Conditioned responses in the white rat: II. Conditioned responses based upon shock to the foreleg. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 1936, 49, 107–138.Google Scholar
  47. Schoenfeld, W. N. An experimental approach to anxiety, escape, and avoidance behavior. In P. H. Hock & J. Zubin (Eds.), Anxiety. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1950.Google Scholar
  48. Sheffield, F. D. Avoidance training and the contiguity principle. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1948, 41, 165–177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sidman, M. Avoidance conditioning with a brief shock and no extero-ceptive warning signal. Science, 1953, 118, 157–158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sidman, M. Avoidance behavior. In W. K. Honig (Ed.), Operant Behavior: Areas of Research Application. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1966.Google Scholar
  51. Skinner, B. F. The Behavior of Organisms. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1938.Google Scholar
  52. Solomon, R. L., Kamin, L. G., & Wynne, L. C. Traumatic avoidance learning: The outcomes of several extinction procedures with dogs. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1953, 48, 291–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Solomon, R. L., & Wynne, L. C. Traumatic avoidance learning: Acquisition in normal dogs. Psychological Monographs, 1953, 67, No. 4 (Whole No. 354).Google Scholar
  54. Theois, J., Lynch, A. D., & Lowe, W. F. Differential effects of shock intensity on one-way and shuttle avoidance conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1966, 72, 294–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Trapold, M. A., & Overmier, J. B. The second learning process in instrumental learning. In A. H. Black & W. F. Prokasy (Eds.), Classical Conditioning II: Current Research and Theory. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1972.Google Scholar
  56. Turner, L. H., & Solomon, R. L. Human traumatic avoidance learning: Theory and experiments on the operant-respondent distinction and failures to learn. Psychological Monographs, 1962, 76 (Whole No. 559).Google Scholar
  57. Uhl, C. N., & Eichbauer, E. A. Relative persistence of avoidance and positively reinforced behavior. Learning and Motivation, 1975, 6, 468–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wahlston, D. L., & Cole, M. Classical and avoidance training of leg flexion in the dog. In A. H. Black & W. F. Prokasy (Eds.), Classical Conditioning II: Current Theory and Research. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1972.Google Scholar
  59. Warner, L. H. The association span of the white rat. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 1932, 41, 57–90. (a)Google Scholar
  60. Warner, L. H. An experimental search for the conditioned response. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 1932, 41, 91–115. (b)Google Scholar
  61. Weisman, R. G., & Litner, J. S. Positive conditioned reinforcement of Sidman avoidance behavior in rats. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1969, 68, 597–603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Woodard, W. T., & Bitterman, M. E. Pavlovian analysis of avoidance conditioning in the goldfish (Carassius auratus). Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1973, 82, 123–129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. B. Overmier
    • 1
  1. 1.University of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations