Historical Introduction

  • M. E. Bitterman
Part of the NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series book series (NSSA, volume 19)


The study of animal intelligence was brought into the laboratory at the end of the nineteenth century, with Darwin’s theory of human evolution providing the principal impetus. The anatomical evidence alone was not convincing, Darwin (1871) conceded; evidence of mental continuity between men and animals also was required, which he found in the casual observations of hunters and naturalists, zoo-keepers and pet-lovers. Were animals capable of reasoning? A hunter named Colquhoun once “winged two wild ducks, which fell on the opposite side of a stream; his retriever tried to bring over both at once but could not succeed; she then, though never before known to ruffle a feather, deliberately killed one, brought the other over, and returned for the dead bird” (p. 46). A captive female baboon, scratched one day by a kitten which she had “adopted,” examined the kitten’s feet and promptly bit off the claws. It was anecdotal evidence such as this on which Darwin based his conclusion that there is nothing new in the mind of man — no characteristic or capability which is not shown also, at least in incipient form, by some lower animal.


Classical Conditioning Instrumental Conditioning Historical Introduction Sensory Precondition Omission Training 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Brown, P. L., & Jenkins, H. M. Auto-shaping of the pigeon’s key-peck. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1968, 11, 1–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Darwin, C. The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex. Vol. 1. New York: D. Appleton, 1871.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Frolov, Y. P. Pavlov and His School: The Theory of Conditioned Reflexes. New York: Oxford University Press, 1937.Google Scholar
  4. Guthrie, E. R. Conditioning as a principle of learning. Psychological Review, 1930, 37, 412–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Guthrie, E. R. The Psychology of Learning. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1935.Google Scholar
  6. Harlow, H. F. The formation of learning sets. Psychological Review, 1949, 56, 55–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hilgard, E. R., & Marquis, D. G. Conditioning and Learning. New York: Appleton-Century, 1940.Google Scholar
  8. Hobhouse, L. T. Mind in Evolution. London: Macmillan, 1901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Holmes, S. J. Studies in Animal Behavior. Boston: Richard C. Badger, 1916.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hull, C. L. Principles of Behavior. New York: Appleton-Century, 1943.Google Scholar
  11. Hull, C. L. A Behavior System. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1952.Google Scholar
  12. Kinnaman, A. J. Mental life of two Macacus rhesus monkeys in captivity. II. American Journal of Psychology, 1902, 13, 173–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Köhler, W. The Mentality of Apes. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1925.Google Scholar
  14. Lashley, K. S. The mechanism of vision: XV. Preliminary studies of the rat’s capacity for detail vision. Journal of General Psychology, 1938, 18, 123–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Maier, N. R. F., & Schneiria, T. C. Mechanisms in conditioning. Psychological Review, 1942, 49, 117–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Morgan, C. L. An Introduction to Comparative Psychology. London: Walter Scott, 1894.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mowrer, O. H. On the dual nature of learning: A reinterpretation of “conditioning” and “problem-solving.” Harvard Educational Review, 1947, 17, 102–148.Google Scholar
  18. Mowrer, O. H. Learning Theory and Behavior. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Pavlov, I. P. Conditioned Reflexes. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1927.Google Scholar
  20. Peterson, G. B., Ackil, J., Fromme, G. P., & Hearst, E. Conditioned approach and contact behavior toward signals for food or brain-stimulation reinforcement. Science, 1972, 172, 1009–1011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Porter, J. P. A preliminary study of the psychology of the English sparrow. American Journal of Psychology, 1904, 15, 313–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Rescorla, R. A., & Solomon, R. S. Two-process learning theory: Relationships between Pavlovian conditioning and instrumental learning. Psychological Review, 1967, 74, 151–182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Romanes, G. J. Animal Intelligence. New York: D. Appleton, 1881.Google Scholar
  24. Sidman, M. Avoidance conditioning with brief shock and no exteroceptive warning signal. Science, 1953, 118, 157–158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sidman, M., & Fletcher, F. G. A demonstration of autoshaping with monkeys. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1968, 11, 307–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Skinner, B. F. The Behavior of Organisms. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1938.Google Scholar
  27. Small, W. S. Experimental study of the mental processes of the rat. American Journal of Psychology, 1901, 12, 206–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Thorndike, E. L. Animal Intelligence: Experimental Studies. New York: Macmillan, 1911.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Tolman, E. C. Purposive Behavior in Animals and Men. New York: Century, 1932.Google Scholar
  30. Watson, J. B. Imitation in monkeys. Psychological Bulletin, 1908, 5, 169–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Watson, J. B. The place of the conditioned reflex in psychology. Psychological Review, 1916, 23, 89–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Williams, K. A. The reward value of a conditioned stimulus. University of California Publications in Psychology, 1929, 4, 31–55.Google Scholar
  33. Woodard, W. T., & Bitterman, M. E. Autoshaping in the goldfish. Behavior Research Methods & Instrumentation, 1974, 6, 409–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Yerkes, R. M. The mental life of monkeys and apes: A study of ideational behavior. Behavioral Monographs, 1916, 3, 1–145.Google Scholar
  35. Yerkes, R. M. The mind of a gorilla. Genetic Psychological Monographs, 1927, 2, 1–193.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. E. Bitterman
    • 1
  1. 1.University of HawaiiHonoluluUSA

Personalised recommendations