Strain and Surface Energy Effects in Ceramic Processes
Strain and surface energy effects often play important roles in determining both the kinetic nature of phase transformations and in the appearance of metastable high temperature phases. Familiar examples are to be found in the effect of these parameters on the kinetics of the monoclinic-tetragonal transformation in zirconia, the occurrence of high temperature tetragonal ZrO2 as a metastable state at low temperatures, and in the appearance of high cristobalite in samples of opal at room temperature. High surface area powders possessing “excess” surface energy (relative to a large single crystal) are called “active” and exhibit sometimes unusual properties.
KeywordsTetragonal Phase Large Single Crystal Chemical Free Energy Store Strain Energy Surface Energy Effect
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